J. Bio. Env. Sci.14( 4), 107-117, April 2019
This paper explores the variation of equity of water distribution in Pehur Main Canal (PMC) irrigation system in the context of time and space. This canal operates under warabandi scheduling of water supply with the aim of achieving social justice. The data for this study was collected from the Mogawar, official outlet-wise register. The equity is measured on a scale of 0-1, 1 for complete equity and 0 for complete inequity. The data analysis shows most of values closer to 0. Temporally equity in Rabi season is better than the summer (early Kharif) season. The spatial distribution of equity during both Rabi and summer seasons is random in majority of secondary canals. Most of secondary canals have better equity in their middle and tail sections then their respective head and mid-sections. This situation points to lack of operational maintenance of irrigation system.
Abernethy CL. 1993. Indicators of the Performance Irrigation Water Distribution Systems. International Irrigation Management Institute: Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Abernethy CL. 1986. Performance Measurement in Canal Water management: A Discussion. ODI-IIMI Irrigation Management Network Paper 86/2d pp. 25.
Abernethy CL. 1989. Performance criteria for irrigation systems. In J.R. Rydzewski and K. Ward (Eds.) Proceedings on International Conference on Irrigation Theory and Practice, University of Southampton, UK, 12–15 September, 1989.
Arshad M, Ahmad N, Usman M, Shabbir A. 2009. Comparison of water losses between unlined and lined watercourses in Indus basin of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 46(4), 280-284.
Awan UK, Anwar A, Ahmad W, Hafeez M. 2016. A methodology to estimate equity of canal water and groundwater use at different spatial and temporal scales: a geo-informatics approach. Environmental Earth Sciences 75, 409.
Bos MG. 1997. Performance indicators for irrigation and drainage. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 11, 119-137.
Bos MG, Burton MA, Molden DJ. 2005. Irrigation and drainage performance assessment: practical guidelines. CABI, Wallingford, vol viii, 2 p.
Bos MG, Murray-Rust DH, Merrey DJ, Johnson HG, Snellen WB. 1994. Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 7, 231-261.
Chambers R. 1988. Managing Canal Irrigation: Practical Analysis from South Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Clemmens AJ, Bos MG. 1990. Statistical methods for irrigation system water delivery performance evaluation. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 4(4), 345-365.
Clemmens AJ, Dedrick AR. 1994. Irrigation techniques and evaluations (pp.64–103). Advanced Series in Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 22. Berlin: Springer.
Cowell FA. 2011. Measuring inequality (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
El-awad OM, Gowing JW, Mawdsley JA. 1991. An approach to multi-criterion evaluation of irrigation system performance. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 5(1), 61-75.
GoKP. 2011. Provincial Irrigation Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar.
GoKP. 2012. Unpublished data collected from Outlet-wise register (Mogawar) Irrigation Division-II, District Swabi.
GoNWFP. 1987. General Operation and Maintenance Procedures of Canal Management, Vol. 1. Irrigation and Power Department, Peshawar, Pakistan.
GoP. 2000. District Census Report of Swabi, Population Census Organization of Pakistan, Islamabad.
Gorantiwar SD. 1995. A model for planning and operation of heterogeneous irrigation schemes in semi-arid regions under rotational water supply. Ph. D. Thesis, Loughborough University of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK.
Gorantiwar SD, Smout IK. 2005. Performance assessment of irrigation water management of heterogeneous irrigation schemes: 1. A framework for evaluation. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 19(1), 1-36.
Gorantiwar SD, Smout IK. 2006. Model for performance based land and water allocation within irrigation schemes. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 20, 345-360.
Hussain I, Hussain Z, Sial M, Akram W, Farhan MF. 2011. Water balance, supply and demand and irrigation efficiency of Indus Basin. Pakistan Economic and Social Review 49(1), 13-38.
Kalu IL, Paudyal GN, Gupta AD. 1995. Equity and efficiency issues in irrigation water distribution. Agricultural Water Management 28(1995), 335-348.
Khepar SD, Gulati HS, Yadav AK, Brar TPS. 2000. A model for equitable distribution for canal water. Irrigation Science 19, 191-197.
Latif M, Sarwar S. 1994. Proposal for equitable water allocation for rotational irrigation in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 8, 35-48.
Malhotra SP. 1982. The Warbandi System and its Infrastructure. Central Board of Irrigation and Power 15(7).
Malhotra SP, Raheja SK. 1984. A Methodology for Monitoring the Performance of Large Scale Irrigation System: A Case Study of Warbandi System of North India. Agricultural Administration 17, 231-259.
Maskey RK, Weber KE, Loof R. 1994. Equity aspects of irrigation development: Evidencefrom two systems in the hills of Nepal. International Journal of Water Resources Development 10, 431-443.
Molden DJ, Gates TK. 1990. Performance measures for evaluation of irrigation-water delivery systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 116(6), 804-823.
Oad R, Sampath RK. 1995. Performance measure for improving irrigation management. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 9(4), 357-370.
Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Authority. 2008. Performance Monitoring and Evaluation of Farmers Organizations. PIDA H/Qs, Irrigation Secretariat Premises: Old Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Qureshi SK, Hussain Z, Nisa Z. 1994. An Assessment of Warabandi (Irrigation Rotation) in Pakistan: A Preliminary Analysis. The Pakistan Development Review 33, 4(II), 845-855.
Renault D, Vehmeyer PW. 1999. On reliability in irrigation service preliminary concepts and application. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 13(1), 77-105.
Sam-Amoah LK, Gowing JW. 2001. Assessing the performance of irrigation schemes with minimum data on water deliveries. Irrig Drain 50(1), 31-39.
Sampath RK. 1988. Equity Measures for Irrigation System Performance Evaluation. Water International 13, 25-32.
Seckler D, Sampath RK, Raheja SK. 1988. An index for measuring the performance of irrigation management systems with an application. Water Resources Bulletin 24(4), 855-860.
Shah MMA, Anwar AA, Bell AR, Haq Z. 2016. Equity in a tertiary canal of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS). Agricultural Water Management 178, 201-214.
Sharma D, Oad R. 1990. Variable-time model for equitable irrigation water distribution. Agricultural water management 17(4), 367-377.
Ul Haq A. 2010. Performance of farmers’ organizations in Punjab, Pakistan: The challenges and way forward. Irrigation and Drainage 59, 23-30.
Wegerich K. 2007. A critical review of the concept of equity to support water allocation at various scales in the Amu Darya basin. Irrigation and Drainage system 21, 185-195.
World Bank. 2002. Pakistan poverty assessment. Poverty in Pakistan: Vulnerabilities, social gaps, and rural dynamics. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Young HP. 1994. Equity: In theory and practice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zardari NUH, Cordery I. 2010. Estimating the effectiveness of a rotational irrigation delivery system: A case study from Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage 59, 277-290.