Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Species distribution and Abundance of Shipworms in the mangrove ecosystem along Pitogo Zamboanga Del Sur, Philippines

Research Paper | February 1, 2022

| Download 53

Annielyn Deocampo Tampus, Maria Luisa S. Orbita, Maria Lourdes Dorothy G. Lacuna, Mac Euan Malugao, Ronielyn Cuaresma Salig

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.20( 2), 131-141, February 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.2.131-141


IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Shipworms are specialized bivalves found in brackish environments where productivity is high such as mangrove forests. They are adapted for burrowing into wood substrates, which they efficiently and rapidly decompose and consume. Nonetheless, the information given to the activity of shipworms in transporting nutrients from mangroves to the adjacent area is limited. Thus, in acquiring such information, we first investigated the distribution and abundance of shipworms in the mangrove area of Balabawan, Balong-Balong, and Liasan by collecting washed-up logs. The study lasted for three months from February to April 2020. A single species, Teredo navalis, was found colonizing driftwood. Mean densities (inds. cm³) of Teredo navalis found show highly no significant differences in mangrove habitat between the three sampling sites during February to April, as well as the interaction of months among sites. The results show that the activity of shipworm in burrowing driftwood logs is quite constant during the whole sampling period. Although variation in physico-chemical parameters was observed, only humidity shows a significant relationship between densities. Variations on humidity and rainfall determine shipworms’ survival (e.g., increased air humidity and rainfall during the wet season). Nonetheless, driftwood logs disintegration data are necessary for this proposition.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Species distribution and Abundance of Shipworms in the mangrove ecosystem along Pitogo Zamboanga Del Sur, Philippines

Borges LMS. 2007. Biogeography of wood boring organisms in European coastal waters and new approaches to controlling borer attack. PhD Thesis.

Borges LMS, Costa F. 2014a. New records of marine wood borers (Bivalvia: Teredinidae and Isopoda: Limnoriidae) from São Miguel, Azores, with a discussion of some aspects of their biogeography. Açoreana 10, supl, p 109-116.

Borges LMS, Sivrikaya H, Cragg SM. 2014b. First records of the warm water shipworm Teredo bartschi Clapp, 1923 (Bivalvia, Teredinidae) in Mersin, southern Turkey and in Olhão, Portugal. Bioinvasion Records 3(1), p 25-28.

Borges LMS, Merckelbach LM, Sampaio I, Cragg SM. 2014c. Diversity, environmental requirements, and biogeography of bivalve wood-borers (Teredinidae) in European coastal waters. Frontiers in Zoology 11(1), p 13.

Castagna M. 1973. Shipworms and other marine borers. Marine Fisheries Review 35, 7–12.

Distel DL, Morrill W, MacLaren-Toussaint N, Franks D, Waterbury J. 2002. Teredinibacter turnerae gen. nov., sp. nov., a dinitrogen-fixing, cellulolytic, endosymbiotic gamma-proteobacterium isolated from the gills of wood-boring molluscs (Bivalvia: Teredinidae). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52, 2261-2269.

Distel DL. 2003. The biology of wood-boring bivalves and their bacterial endosymbionts. In: Schulz T, Goodell B, Nicholas D (eds), Current knowledge of wood deterioration mechanisms and its impact on biotechnology and wood preservation. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., p 253–271.

Distel DL, Amin M, Burgoyne A, Linton E, Mamangkey G, Morrill W, Nove J, Wood N, Yang J. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Pholadoidea Lamarck, 1809 supports a single origin for xylotrophy (wood feeding) and xylotrophic bacterial endosymbiosis in Bivalvia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution in Press.

Hakanson L. 2005. The relationship between salinity, suspended particulate matter and water clarity in aquatic systems. In The Ecological Society of Japan.

Hogan CM, Patmore LC, Seidman H. 1973. “Statistical Prediction of Dynamic Thermal Equilibrium Temperatures using Standard Meteorological Data Bases”. EPA. Retrieved 2016-02-15.Environmental Protection Technology Series. Document No. EPA-660/2-73-003.

Kohlmeyer J, Bebout B, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B. 1995. Decomposition of mangrove wood by marine fungi and teredinids in Belize. Marine Ecology 16(1), 27-39.

Iljin IN. 1992. Marine wood-boring organisms in the USSR and their eradication. In: Biofouling and biodamage. Ecological problems, [ed. by Iljin IN]. Moscow, Russia: Nauka. 21-56.

Ishika P. 2017. Determination of salinity in water from different sources using refractometer. St. Xaviers Girls School, Chaibasa, Jharkhand-833201.

Lozouet P, Plaziat JC. 2008. Mangrove Environments and Molluscs. Conchbooks, Hackenheim, p 155.

Murphy SF. 2007. General Information on Solids. Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network.

MacIntosh H. 2012. Lyrodus turnerae, a new teredinid from eastern Australia and the Coral Sea (Bivalvia: Teredinidae). Molluscan Research 31, 36–42.

MacIntosh H, De Nys R, Whalan S. 2012. Shipworms as a model for competition and coexistence in specialized habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 461, 95–105.

MacIntosh H, de Nys R, Whalan S. 2014. Contrasting life histories in shipworms: Growth, reproductive development and fecundity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 459, 80– 86.

Nair NB, Saraswathy M. 1971. The biology of  wood-boring teredinid molluscs. Advances in Marine Biology 9, 335-509.

NIMPIS. 2002. Teredo navalis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt CL., Martin RB, Sliwa C, Mcennulty FR, Murphy NE, Jones T, and S. Cooper Eds).

Pati SK, Rao MV, Balaji M, Swain D. 2014. Deterioration of wood by marine borers in a tropical harbour: influence of environmental parameters and biotic factors. International Journal of Marine Science and Environment 4(13), p 119-133.

Rayner SM. 1983. Distribution of Teredinids (Mollusca: Teredinidae) in Papua New Guinea. Records of the Australian Museum 35, 61–67.

Voight JR. 2015. Xylotrophic bivalves: aspects of their biology and the impacts of humans. Journal of Molluscan Studies (2), 175-186.

Turner RD. 1966. A survey and illustrated catalogue of the Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) Special Publication. Cambridge: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.

Turner RD. 1971a. Identification of marine wood boring molluscs, p 17-64 in Jones, EB, & Eltringham SK. (Eds), Marine Borers, Fungi and Fouling Organisms of Wood. Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development, Paris.

Turner RD. 1971b. Australian shipworms. Australian Natural History 17(4), 139-45.

Turner RD, Johnson AC. 1971. Biology of marine wood-boring molluscs. In: Jones, E. B. G. & Eltringham, S. K. eds. Marine borers, fungi and fouling organisms of wood. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, p 259-301.

Underwood AJ. 1997. Experiments in ecology: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Cambridge, Cambridge University, p 504.

Zar JH. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, p 663.