Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Status of macroflora inside and outside marine sanctuaries of Apid, Mahaba and Digyo Islands, Inopacan leyte, Western Philippines

Research Paper | April 1, 2018

| Download 2

Eliza Dadole Espinosa, Filipina Baroy Sotto, Annielyn Deocampo Tampus, Paciencia Po Milan

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.12( 4), 255-266, April 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/12.4.255-266


IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


The study was conducted to determine the species composition, diversity, distribution and abundance of seaweeds and seagrass sinside and outside marine sanctuaries of Apid, Mahaba and Digyo Islands in Leyte, Philippines. Quantitatively, the data were collected using the transect-quadrat method. Three 50-100 m transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline in each of the sampling sites. A total of 58 species of macroflora were recorded, of which51 species were seaweeds and 7 species were seagrasses.  Seaweeds were dominated by chlorophytes (green algae) and rhodophytes (red algae) with 20 and 19 species, respectively. Macroflora inside marine sanctuaries were less diverse than outside marine sanctuaries based on Shannon diversity index. Generally, results also had shown that the status (abundance) of seagrass-seaweed inside the marine sanctuaries were in poor condition with a mean cover of 6.8% while outside marine sanctuaries had fair condition with a mean cover of 14.7%. The findings of the study concluded that the species diversity (seaweeds; P=0.02 and seagrass; P=0.001) and abundance (P=0.04) of macroflora between marine sanctuaries differed significantly. However, further t-test results revealed that there were no significant difference observed of its status when compared outside the marine sanctuaries. The poor status was attributed to the reef structure and substrate types of the sampling sites. The structure of the reefs from relatively wider and shallow reefs provide colonization of seaweeds and seagrasses compared to narrow reefs due to steep bottom topography. Substrate types vary from sandy, coral rubbles to coralline rocks providing habitat for diverse macroflora.


Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Status of macroflora inside and outside marine sanctuaries of Apid, Mahaba and Digyo Islands, Inopacan leyte, Western Philippines

Alcala AC, Russ GR. 2002. Monitoring of marine protected areas. In: Workshop Proceedings of the AFMA-Marine Fishery Reserves Program. Formulation of a National Fish Sanctuary Strategy. Edited by Campos W L, P. D. Beldia II and P. M. Aliňo. University of the Philippines in the Visayas, 242 pp.

Bakus G J. 1990. Quantitative ecology and Marine Biology. A. A. Balkema/Rotterdam, Vii + 157 pp.

Calumpong HP, Meñez EG.1997. Field guide to the common mangroves, seagrass and algae of the Philippines. Bookmark, Makati, 197 p.

English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V. 1997. Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute Marine Science, Townsville, 368 pp.

Fortes MD. 1990. Seagrasses: A resource unknown in the ASEAN region. ICLARM Education Series 5.International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Manila, Philippines, 46 pp.

Lalli CM, Parsons TR. 1993. Biological oceanography: An introduction. Pergamon Press, 301 p.

Miller MW, Aronson RB, MurdochTJT. 2003. Monitoring coral reef macroalgae: Different pictures from different methods. Bull. of Marine Science 72(1), 199-206.

Miller MW, Hay ME. 1996. Coral-seaweed-grazer-nutrient interactions on temperate reefs. Ecological Monographs, 66(3), 323-344.

McClanahan TR, Muthiga NA, Kamukuru AT, Machano H, Kiambo RW.1999. The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania. Biology Conservation, 89, 161-182.

Murray JW. 1973. Distribution and ecology of living benthic foraminiferids. An Atlas of British Recent Foraminiferids. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. London, 272 p.

Ohno T, Critchley AT. 1993. Seaweed cultivation and marine ranching. First Edition. Kanagawa International Fisheries Training Center, International Cooperation Agency Japan. JICA, 151 pp.

OyviadH, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. 2005. PAlaeontological Statitics (PAST Program), ver. 1.34, 60pp.

Phillips RC, Meñez EG.1988. Seagrass. Smithsonian Contribution Marine Science No. 24. Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 52-78p.

Saito Y, Atobe S. 1970. Phytosociological study of intertidal marine algae. I. Usujiri Benten-Jima, Hokkaido.  Bull. Fac. Fish., Hokkaido Univ.,21, 37-69.

Sluka RD, Miller MW. 2001. Herbivorous fish Assemblages and herbivory pressure on Laamu Atoll, Republic of Maldives. Coral Reefs, 20, 255-262.

Trono GC.1997. Field Guide and atlas of the seaweed resources of the Philippines. Bookmark, Inc., Makati City, Philippines. xx, 306 p.