Structural colonization of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in three acacia species of different sizes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2017
Views (223) Download (93)

Structural colonization of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in three acacia species of different sizes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Kamal H. Suliman, F. N. Barakah, Abdulaziz M. Assaeed
Int. J. Biosci.10( 5), 308-318, May 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


In this study, we investigated the status of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) living natural symbiotically with different sizes of the acacia. Root colonization and infection of different sizes of Acacia tortilis, A. ehrenbergiana and A. gerrardii with AMF varied irrespective of tree species and size. The overall highest infection was recorded in A. ehrenbergiana medium size at Raudhat Khuraim site (70%) followed by A. tortilis short size (60%), A. gerrardii medium size (58.7%) and short size (57.7%) at Washlah site. The lowest infection was found in A. gerrardii large size in Khuraim (6%). The maximum vesicles were found in A. tortilislarge (95%) followed by A. ehrenbergiana medium (91%) at Khuraim, A. tortilis medium (67.3) at Washlah, A. gerrardii and A. tortilis short size (51.7), (50.0) at Khuraim and Huraymila. The minimum was recorded with A. gerrardii medium (4%) in Khuraim. The highest arbuscular infection was recorded with short size A. tortilis (97.7%) followed by medium A. tortilis (51.7),  A. tortilis short (50%) in Huraymila. The lowest infection was found in large size A. torilis (4.7%) at Washlah. The intensity of infection and spore population also varied widely and independently in each individual trees size and species. The highest number of spore was observed in medium size A. gerrardii at Washlah (230) and the lowest number (21) in short size A. gerrardii in Khuraim. In conclusion, our results indicate high infection of AMF in the rootsof short acacia sizes followed by medium size and least with large size trees.


Al nohait FA. 2015. Diversity and activity of microorganisms in the rhizosp here of some wild plants in Riyadh region. PhD thesis (unpublished), King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Qarawi A, Mridha M, Alghamdi O. 2012. Diversity of Structural Colonization and Spore Population of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Some Plants from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 6, 1119-1125.

Brzostowicz A. 2011. Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technolologiczny w Szczecinie, Wydział Kształtowania Środowiskai Rolnictwa. Wieś Jutra (05-06).

Compant S, Heijden MG,Sessitsch A. 2010. Climate change effects on beneficial plant–microorganism interactions. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Ecology 73(2), pp.197-214.

Dai M, Bainard LK, Hamel C, Gan Y, Lynch D. 2013. Impact of Land Use on Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Rural Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology p. 6719-6729.

Dhar P, Mridha M. 2012. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in some forest trees of Aagoonia, Bangladesh. Indian Forester 138, 344-348.

Gerdemann J, Nicolson T H. 1963. Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone specie sex tracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological society 46, 235-244.

Giovannetti M, Mosse B.1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New phytologist 84, 489-500.

Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Al-Huqail AA, Wirth S, Egamberdieva D. 2016. The interaction between Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic bacteria enhances plant growth of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Frontiers in Microbiology 7.

Kassim JK. 2013. Method for estimation of calcium carbonate in soils from Iraq. International Journal of Environment 1(1), 9-19.

Khaliel A. 1989. Mycorrhizal status of some desert plants and correlation with edaphic factors. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan (Japan).

Koske R, Gemma J. 1989. A modified procedure for staining roots to detect VA mycorrhizas. Mycological research 92, 486-488.

Manaut N, Sanguin H, Ouahmane L, Bressan M, Thioulouse J, Baudoin E, Galiana A, Hafidi M, Prin Y, Duponnois R. 2015. Potentialities of ecological engineering strategy based on native Arbuscular mycorrhizal community for improving afforestation programs with carob trees in degraded environments. Ecological Engineering 79, 113-119.

Mc Cauley A, Jones C, Jacobsen J. 2009. Soil pH and organic matter. Nutrient management module 8, 1-12.

Mirzaei J, Noorbakhsh N. 2014. Identification of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Cratae guspontica C. Koch from Ilam Province, Iran. Ecopersia 2(4), 767-777.

Morton J. 1988. Taxonomy of VA mycorrhizal fungi: classification, nomenclature, and identification. Mycotaxon 32, 267-324.

Morton JB, Benny GL. 1990. Classification of Arbuscular mycorrhizalfungi (Zygomycetes): A new order, Glomales, two new suborders, Glomineae and Gigasporineae, and two new families, Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae, with an emendation of Glomaceae. Mycotaxon 37, 471-491.

Page A, Miller R, Keeney D. 1982. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. Methods of soil analysis 595.

Phillips JM, Hayman D. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British mycological Society 55, 158IN116-161IN118.

Redecker D, Raab P. 2006. Phylogeny of the Glomeromycota (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi): recent developments and new gene markers. Mycologia 98(6), 885-895.

Rowell DL. 2014. Soil science: Methods & applications. Routledge.

Salehi MH, Beni, OH, Harchegani HB, Borujeni, IE, Motaghian, HR. 2011. Refining soil organic matter determination by loss-on-ignition. Pedosphere 21(4), 473-482.

Schüßler A, Walker C. 2010. The Glomero mycota: a species list with new families and new genera. The Royal Botanic Garden Kew, Botanische Staats sammlung Munich, and Oregon State University.

Sharpley AN, McDowell RW, Kleinman PJ. 2004. Amounts, forms, and solubility of phosphorus in soils receiving manure. Soil science society of America journal 68(6), 2048-2057.

WI T. 2005. Determination of Kjeldahl Nitrogen in soil, bio waste and sewage sludge.

Yasir M, Azhar E, Khan I, Bibi F, Baabdullah R, Al-Zahrani I A, Al- Ghamdi A K. 2015. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in south-western highlands of Saudi Arabia, Bio Med Central Microbiology 15, 65.