Structure and composition estimation of plant species around Khoh river of Garhwal Himalaya, India

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2012
Views (336) Download (5)

Structure and composition estimation of plant species around Khoh river of Garhwal Himalaya, India

Kaiser Iqbal, Jahangeer A. Bhat, Nazir A. Pala, A. K. Negi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 9), 1-11, September 2012.
Certificate: JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was carried out along the Khoh river of Garhwal Himalaya with the aim to assess the species composition and diversity of plant species between the forest vegetation along the river and the forest, which was away from the river. Vegetational analysis was carried out by quadrat sampling method and a total of 30 quadrates along the river and 30 quadrates away from the river were laid out randomly and the size of quadrat was 10 m × 10 m. Salix tetraseprma tree species emerged as a dominant species along riverian vegetation with highest IVI (38.07) and highest density (1.03 trees/100m2) values. The highest density values in shrubs and herb species were recorded for Trachelospermum lucidum and Polygala erioptera respectively. In the forest vegetation, located away from the river, Toona hexandra was found dominant species with IVI and density values 34.52 and 0.66 trees/100m2 respectively and in shrub layer, the highest density was observed for Uraria rufescens and in herbs the highest density was recorded for Persicaria capitata. Tree species diversity was observed highest along the river while the lowest tree diversity was away from the river


Ahmad I, MSA Ahmad, M Hussain, M Ashraf, MY Ashraf, M Hameed. 2010. Spatiotemporal aspects of plant community structure in open scrub rangelands of sub mountainous Himalayan plateaus Pakistan Journal Botany 42(5), 3431- 3440.

Ayyappan N, N Parthasarathy. 2001. Patterns of tree diversity within a large-scale permanent plot of tropical evergreen forest Western Ghats, India. Ecotropica 5, 197-211.

Bargali K, Usman, Joshi M. 1998. Effect of forest covers on certain site and soil characteristics in Kumaun Himalayas. Indian Journal of Forestry 21(3), 224-227.

Bhandari BS, JP Mehta, BP Nautiyal, SC Tiwari. 1997. Structure of a chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) community along in altitudinal gradient in Garhwal Himalaya. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 23(1), 67-74.

Brauman K, AGC Daily, TK Duarte, HA Mooney. 2007. The nature and value of ecosystem services: An overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32, 67-98.

Burton  ML,  Samuelson  LJ,  Pan  S.  2005. Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient Springer Urban Ecosystems 8, 93–106,

Curtis JT, Cottam G. 1956. Plant Ecology Workbook. Laboratory field reference manual. Burgers Publication Co. Minnesota, 193.

Curtis JT, McIntosh RP. 1950. The interrelation of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31, 434-455.

Curtis JT. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Communities. University Wisconsin Press, Madison Wisconsin, 657.

Gairola S, RS Rawal, NP Todaria. 2008. Forest vegetation patterns along an altitudinal gradient in sub-alpine zone of west Himalaya, India. African Journal of Plant Science 2(6), 42-48.

Gaur RD. 1999. Flora  of  the  District  Garhwal, North West Himalaya. Trans Media, Srinagar, Garhwal.

Kathryn Lynn HMS. 2008. The ecology and management of headwater riparian areas in the Erie Gorges Ecoregion of Northeastern Ohio, Ph.D Thesis, University Ohio.

Kershaw  KA.1973.  Quantitative  and  Dynamics Plant Ecology (2nd Edition), ELBSD & Edward Arnold, London.

Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Pangtey YPS. 2005. Comparative studies on species richness, diversity and composition of oak forests in Nainital district, Uttaranchal. Current Science 89(4), 668-676.

Kumar M, Sharma CM, Rajwar GS 2004 A study on the community structure and diversity of a sub-tropical forest of Garhwal Himalayas Indian Forester 130(2), 207-214.

Kumar M, Sharma CM, Rajwar GS. 2005. The stability and diversity patterns of vegetation in tropical foot hill forest along disturbance gradient in Garhwal Himalaya. Annals of Forestry 13(1), 84-92.

Kumar M, Singh B, Joshi M. 2009. Effect of aspect on distribution pattern of Anogeissus latifolia Wall ex Bedd. in subtropical belt of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Tanzani Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation.

Looy KV, H Olivier, B Beatrijs, H Martin. 2003. The effects of river embankment and forest fragmentation on the plant species richness and composition of floodplain forests in the Meuse valley, Belgium. Belgium Journal Boany. 136(2), 97-108.

Maikhuri RK, Nautiyal S, Rao KS, Chandrasekhar K, Gavali R, Saxena KG. 2000. Analysis and resolution of protected area – people conflicts in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India Environmental Conservation 26(4).

Margalef R. 1958. Information theory in ecology. General Systems, 3: 36-71.

Mishra R.1968. Ecology Work Book. Oxford and IBM publishing Co. Calcutta, 244.

Naiman RJ, Decamps H, Pollock M. 1993. The role of corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecological Applications 3(2), 209–212.

Odum EP. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders. 574.

Pala NA, Bhat JA, Dasgupta S, Negi AK, Todaria NP.2011. Ecological and Economic Impacts of River Based Recreation in River Ganga, India. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(4), 375-382, 2011.

Panchal NS, Pandey AN. 2004. Analysis of vegetation of Rampara forest in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India. Tropical Ecology 45(2), 223-231, 2004.

Pande PK, Negi JDS, Sharma SC. 2001. Plant species diversity and vegetation analysis in moist temperate Himalayan forest. Indian Journal of Forestry 24(4), 456-470.

Pande PK, Negi JDS, Sharma SC. 2002. Plant species diversity, composition, gradient analysis and regeneration behaviour of some tree species in a moist temperate western Himalayan forest ecosystem. Indian Forester, 128(8), 869-889.

Pangtey YPS, Samant SS, Bankoti NS, Rawal RS. 1989. Soil and vegetation Analaysis of Pindari area. Second Annual report submitted to Department of Environment, New Delhi 167.

Pielou EC. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13, 131-144.

Ram J, Kumar A, Bhatt J. 2004. Plant diversity in six forest types of Uttarakhand Central Himalaya, India. Current Science 87 (7), 975-978.

Saxena AK, Singh JS. 1982. A phytosociological analysis of woody species in forest communities of a part of Kumaun Himalaya. Vegetatio 50, 3-22.

Semwal RL, Nautiyal S, Rao KS, Maikhuri RK, Bhandari BS.1999. Structure of Forests under community conservation: A preliminary study of Jardhar village initiative in Garhwal Himalaya. Envis (7).

Shannon CE, Wiener W. 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Simpson EH. 1949. Measurement  of  diversity. Nature (London) 163, 688.

Singh JS, Singh SP. 1992. Forest of Himalaya, Structure, Functioning and impact of Man. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India.

Singh JS. 2006. Sustainable development of the Indian Himalayan region: Linking ecological and economic concerns. Current Science 90(6), 784-788.

Singh SP, Singh JS.1986. Structure and function of the central Himalayan oak forests. Proceeding Indian Academy of Science Plant Science 96, 159-89.

Tripathi KP, Singh B. 2009. Species diversity and vegetation structure across various strata in natural and plantation forests in Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, North India. Tropical Ecology 50(1): 191-200.

Uniyal P, Pokhriyal P, Dasgupta S, Bhatt D, Todaria NP.2010. Plant diversity in two forest types along the disturbance gradient in Dewalgarh Watershed, Garhwal Himalaya Current Science, 98 (7), 938-943.

Ward JV, 1998. Riverine landscapes: Biodiversity patterns, disturbance regimes, and aquatic conservation. Biol. Cons. 83, 269-278.

Youngblood AP, WG Padgett, AH Winward. 1985.  Riparian  Community  TypeClassification  of Eastern Idaho-Western Wyoming. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT.