Int. J. Biosci.2(6), 72-81, June 2012
The genetic diversity of Kongu Vellalar population of Salem District Tamil Nadu was studied using mt DNA and Y-chromosomal biallelic SNP markers.In this study, 400 base pair of the HVR-1 region and selected coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and 8 Y chromosome SNPs were analyzed in 96 Kongu Vellalar caste population of Tamil Nadu, and compared the results with the available data from the Indian subcontinent. It was observed that all the individuals of Kongu Vellalar caste population were falling in macrohaplogroup M and N. Further, subhaplogrouping of “M” revealed that Kongu Vellalar caste population was falling in haplogroup M*, M35 and M5. On the other hand at the Y chromosome haplogroup level 29% of the studied Kongu Vellalar caste population falls in Indian specific haplogroup M82-H1a. Our study concluded that there might be an admixture of this population with the surrounding Austro-Asiatic populations.
Andrews RM, Kubacka I, Chinnery PF, Lightowlers RN, Turnbull DM, Howell N. 1999. Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA. Nat Genet. 23,147.
Bamshad M, Kivisild T, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Ricker CE. Rao BB. 2001. Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations. Genome Res.11, 994–1004.
Bamshad MJ, Wooding S, Watkins WS, Ostler CT, Batzer MA. 2003. Human population genetic structure and inference of group membership. Am J Hum Genet.72, 578 – 589.
Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M. 2003. Ethnic India: a genomic view, with special reference to peopling and structure. Genome Res. 13, 2277–2290.
Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A. 1994. The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Giles Richard E, Blanc H, Cann HM, Wallace DC. 1980. Maternal inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA. PNAS 77, 6715–6719.
Jeanmougin F, Thompson JD, Gouy M, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ. 1998. Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal X. Elsevier Science.
Jobling MA, Tyler Smith C. 2003. The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age. Nat Rev Genet. 4, 598–612.
Kivisild T, Bamshad MJ, Kaldma K, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Reidla M. 1999. Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages. Curr Biol. 9, 1331–1334.
Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J. 2003. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. Am J Hum Genet.72, 313–332.
Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M. 2004. MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in bioinformatics.52.150–163.
Mark AJ, Chris Tyler-Smith. 2003. The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age. Nature reviews genetics. 4. 598-612
Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Metspalu E, Parik J, Hudjashov G, Kaldma K. 2004. Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genet. 5, 26.
Petraglia MD, Allchin B. 2007. The evolution and history of human populations in south Asia. 229-244, Springer. 229– 244.
Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Kivisild T, Reddy AG, Singh VK, Rasalkar A. 2005. Reconstructing the origin of Andaman Islanders. Science. 13, 996.
Thangaraj K, Joshi MB, Reddy AG, Gupta NJ, Chakravarty B, Singh L. 2002. CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene is not associated with male infertility in Indian populations. J Androl. 23, 815-818.