Int. J. Biosci.1(6), 33-38, December 2011
Ten multiple drug resistant enterobacterial pathogens were isolated from common sources of human consumption and were subjected to plasmid isolation. The multiple drug resistant (MDR)(write full abbreviation) isolates collected in the present study indicated the presence of plasmids of almost identical size of approximate 60 kb conferring resistance towards multiple antibiotics. An opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contained a plasmid of slightly higher molecular weight. The isolates were subjected for antibiotic susceptibility testing against 10 antibiotics and found to be resistant towards six antibiotics. All the isolated MDR pathogens were found to be sensitive towards amikacin. Sensitivity for cefuroxime, oxacillin, and metronidazol differed for different species. The pattern of MDR bacteria was perturbing as simultaneous resistance to chloramphenicol and gentamycin, formed the common MDR pattern. The pattern was almost the same for the diverse species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter diversus, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus myxofaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolated from different food samples and stronglysuggests prevalence of similar R plasmids. This suggests that antibiotic resistance is encoded on a high molecular weight plasmid, and can easily spread in the community through food stuff generally consumed by the common man.
Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turek. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardised single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 45, 493.
Chitnis V, Chitnis D, Patil S, Ravikant 2000. Hospital effluent- A source of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Current Science 79, 989.
Cruz F, Davies J, 2000. Horizontal gene transfer and the origin of species: lessons from bacteria. Trends in Microbiology. 8,128.
Cunha BA, McDermott B, Nausheen S. 2008. Single daily high-dose tigecycline therapy of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes nosocomial urinary tract infection. Journal of Chemotherapy. 19, 753.
Elizabeth BH, Vincent HT. 2010. Detection and treatment options for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs): an emerging cause of multidrug-resistant infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 65, 1119.
Gaynes R, Monnet, D. 1997. The contribution of antibiotic use on the frequency of antibiotic resistance in hospitals. Ciba. Foundation Symposium. 207, 47.
Grabow WOK, Prozesky OW. 1973. Drug resistance of coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy. 3, 175.
Joshi S, Litake GM, Ghole VS. 2003. Plasmid born extended spectrum β-lactamase in a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii. Journal of Medical. Microbiology. 52, 1125.
Kado C, Liu S. 1981. Rapid Procedure for Detection and Isolation of Large and Small Plasmids. Journal of Bacteriology. 145, 1365.
Krueger WA, Volkhard A, Kempf AJ. 2008. Treatment with tigecycline of recurrent urosepsis caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Microbiol. 46, 817.
Mandal S, Mandal MD, Pal NK. 2004. Plasmid Encoded Multiple drug Resistance of Salmonella typhi and some enteric bacteria in and around Kolkata, India: A Preliminary study online. Journal of health Allied Sciences. 4, 2.
Pepperell C, Kus JV, Gardam MA, Humar A, Burrows LL. 2002. Low- virulence Citrobacter species encode resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 46, 3555.
Rahman K, Malik A. 2001. Antibiotic resistance and detection of β- lactamase in bacterial strains of Staphylococci and Escherichia coli isolated from foodstuffs. World Journal of Microbial Biotechnology. 17, 863.
Rajaa A, Abdelaziz S. 2001. Plasmid mediated TEM-3 extended spectrum B- lactamase production in Salmonella typhimurium in Casablanca. Infection 20, 2.
Rajini, Rani DB, Mahadevan A. 1992. Plasmid mediated metal and antibiotic resistance in marine Pseudomonas. Biometals. 5, 73.
Sambrook J, Fritsch E, Maniatis T. 1989. Molecular cloning : A laboratory Mannual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, N Y, USA. Cold spring Harbour Laboratory Press.
Spengler G, Miezak A, Hajdu E, Kawase M, Amaral L, Molnar J. 2003. Enhancement of plasmid curing by 9- aminoacridine and two phenothiazines in the presence of proton pump inhibitor 1-(2-benzoxazolyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 22, 223.
Vigil KJ, Adachi JA, Aboufaycal H, Hachem RY, Reitzel RA, Jiang Y, Tarrand JJ, Chemaly RF, Bodey GP, Rolston KV, Raad I. 2009. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacteremia in cancer patients. American Journal of Infection Control. 37, 741.
Wain J, Nga LT, Kidgell C. 2003. Molecular Analysis of incHII antimicrobial resistance plasmids from Salmonella serovar typhi strains associated with typhoid fever. Antimicrobial. Agents and chemotherapy. 47, 2732.
Watanbe T. 1963. Infectious heredity of multiple drug resistance in bacteria. Bacterial Rev. 27, 87.