J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(3), 95-106, September 2014
Caracal is one of 10 cat’s species in Iran that lives in plain and desert. Major changes in natural ecosystems and increasing desertification, threatens the habitat of Caracal and its symbiotic. This research aim was to assess the suitability of Caracal`s habitat in different seasons to determine the most important factors that leads to seasonal selection of habitat. Presence data of Caracal were collected during 10 years and maps of effective environmental factors was prepared (slope, aspect, height, water resources, vegetation, land cover, prey and competitor’s distribution map). Results showed best model with highest accuracy for seasonal distribution of Caracal belongs to summer (AUC= 0.835). Water and vegetation have the most participation in this model (54% and 21.5 %respectively). Also winter has the lowest efficiency compared with other models (AUC = 0.772) and its most effective variables are vegetation and competitors (27.4 % and 26.8 % respectively). This study suggests the importance of vegetation in different season as shelter and ambush for Caracal and its prey. Caracal depends on the water in the summer, but in other seasons it needs less and in winter is lowest (0%). Totally the area of Caracal habitat in different seasons is various due to changes in priority of affective variables. As a result, in the summer, according to limited water suitable habitat is minimized and in autumn, it is maximum (8.2% and 44.2% of total area respectively). Accordingly, efforts to the development of suitable habitat of Caracal can be focused on improving the limiting factors of water and vegetation in the Kavir National Park.
Anonymous, 2002. Project of Central Desert National Park and protection area management. Volume 10. Vegetation cover. Consulting firm Company of Development and recovery of resources. 87 pages. In Persian.
Anonymous, 2012. Semnan Meteorological office. Meteorological issue of Ghomes climate. Department of Weather forecasting and applied climate research.70 pages. In Persian.
Atarodi M. 2011. National Park and Protection Area of Kavir. Volume 1. Habitats of Acinonyx jubatus venaticus of Iran. Barg zeitoon publication. 106 pages. In Persian.
Bothma D, Walker C. 1999. The caracal. In: Larger Carnivores of the African Savannas, 2nd edition, 274 pages. Pp 116- 128. Van Schaik, Pretoria.
Cicnjak H, Roth D, Roff H, Vinovrski Z. 1987. Food habits of brown bear in plitvis lakes national park, Yugoslavia. Bears: their biology and management. 221- 226. dx.doi.org/10.2307/3872628.
Dayton GS, Fitzgerald LA. 2006. Habitat suitability models for desert amphibians. Biological conservation 132 (2006) 4 0 –4 9. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.0 3.012.
Digeronimo P, Pas MA, Edmonds J. 2010. 11th Conservation Workshop for the Fauna of Arabia – Environment and Protected Areas Authority (EPAA).
Elith J, Graham CH, Anderson RP, Dudik M, Ferrier S, Guisan A, Hijmans RJ, Huettmann F, Leathwick JR, Lehmann A, Li J, Lohmann LG, Loiselle BA, Manion G, Moritz C, Nakamura M, Nakazawa Y. Environ. Overton JM, Peterson AT, Phillips SJ, Richardson K, Scachetti- Pereira R, Schapire RE, Soberon J, Williams S, Wisz MS, Zimmermann NE. 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Echography 29: 129-151. DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04596.x.
Farhadinia MS, Akbari H, Beheshti M, Sadeghi A. 2007. Ecology & status of the Caracal, Caracal caracal, in the Abbas abad Naein Reserve, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 41, 5-10. DOI: 10.1080/09397140.2007.10638221.
Gaston KJ. 1996. Species richness: measure and measurement. Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference (ed. K.J. Gaston), Blackwell Science, Oxford pp. 77–113
Heptner VG, Sludskii AA, Komarov A, Komorov N. 1992. Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora, Part 2. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. 784 pages. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3847/0
Katia m, Ferraz P M B, Beatriz M, Beisiegel R, De paula C, Sana DA, De campos CB, De oliveira TG, Desbiez AIJ. 2012. How species distribution models can improve cat conservation-jaguars in Brazil. Cat News Special Issue. 38-42.
Kok OB, Nel JAJ. 1996. The Kuiseb river as a linear oasis in the Namib Desert. African Journal of Ecology. Volume 34, Issue 1, pages 39–47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.1996.tb00592.x.
Kumar SS, Thomas J. 2009. Maxent modeling for predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered tree Canacomyrica monticola in New Caledonia. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment Vol. 1(4), pp. 094-098, July. doi: 10.1890/080054. 23.
Mukherjee S, Goyal SP, Johnsingh AJT, Leite Pitman MRP. 2004. The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis chaus), caracal (Caracal caracal) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. J. Zool., Lond. 262, 405–411. DOI:10.1017/S0952836903004783.
Ray lC, Hunter L, Zigouris J. 2005. Setting conservation and research priorities for larger African carnivores. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA. pp 1-216.
Sanei A, Gordmardi E, Jafari B, Absalan H, Mohamad Z. 2013. Leopard Distribution In Relation To Human Pressures and Prey Resources in North Khorassan Provience. Iran. Proceeding of the international forestry graduated students conference. 2-4 july. University putra Malaysia. 58-61.
Seoanea Suárez S, García MEL, Morales P M B, Osbornec P E, Eduardo DJ. 2008. Maximum entropy niche-based modelling of seasonal changes in little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) distribution. Ecological modeling, 2 1 9. 17–29. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel. 2008. 07.035.
Sequeira A, Mellin C, Rowat D, Meekan MG, Bradshaw CJA. 2012. Indian Ocean-scale predictions of seasonal whale shark distribution from opportunistic fisheries-based sightings. Diversity and Distributions. 18(5), 504-518.
Sunquist M, Sunquist F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Wilting A, Cord A, Hearn AJ, Hesse D, Mohamed A, Traeholdt C, Cheyne SM, Sunarto S, Jayasilan MA, Ross J, Shapiro AC, Sebastian A, Dech S, Breitenmoser C, Sanderson J, Duckworth J W, Hofer H. 2010. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid. Journal pone. Volume 5, Issue 3. e9612. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009612.
Ziaie, Hooshang. 2008. A field guide to the Mammals of Iran. Tehran, Iran Wildlife Center. Second edition. 419 pages. 308- 310. In Persian.