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Study of the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of essential oils of plants Cymbopognon citratus (Poaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) consumed in Gabon

Hourfil-Gabin Ntougou Assoumou, Aymard Digaye, Gontran Nsi Akoue, Pierre Philippe Mbehang Nguema, Prosper Edou Engonga

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Int. J. Micro. Myco.12(3), 20-28, March 2021

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Abstract

Most food products are perishable in nature and require protection against lipid oxidation and antimicrobial spoilage during preparation, storage and distribution. Our work therefore consists in studying these two activities from three plants, C. citratus, O. gratissimum and Z. officinale, widely consumed in Gabon, with the aim of improving the qualities of food preservation, in this case fermented milk: the Milk of Canaan. The plant material for the study consists of the leaves of C. citratus (Poaceae) and O. gratissimum (Lamiaceae), and the rhizomes of Z. officinale (Zingiberaceae). Hydrodistillation is a simple extraction method that was used following the model adapted from Clevenger. The culture and identification of Canaan Milk bacteria strains were performed on culture media, such as agar, EMB, Soja Tryptique and Muller Hilton. Antibacterial tests were carried out using the disc method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the reduction possibility of antioxidants in the presence of DPPH (2,2’diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The extraction yield and color of the EOs of C. citratus is light yellow in color and obtained the best yield, i.e. 0.67% (± 0.07), followed by the EO of gratissimum, colorless, i.e. 0.65% (± 0.05). The lowest yield is that of Z. officinale, light yellow in color, or 0.12% (± 0.007). We see a purple stain under the microscope, so we have Gram + bacteria. The test on the “api staph” gallery reminds us of an enterobacterium, in particular Micrococcus spp, among lactic acid bacteria. The results show that HE O. gratissimum has a larger inhibition diameter than C. citratus and Z. officinale. The diameters are respectively 35; 25 and 20mm. In view of these results, we can be allowed to think that these three essential oils are good natural preservatives of food and more specifically of dairy products such as yogurt / Canaan milk. In particular C. citratus and O. gratissimum which show good results of the antibacterial test.

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