Study on Lifestyle Practices among Secondary School Adolescents of Rural and Urban Areas in Bangladesh

Paper Details

Research Paper 04/08/2023
Views (758) Download (69)

Study on Lifestyle Practices among Secondary School Adolescents of Rural and Urban Areas in Bangladesh

Moumita Paul, Afshan Zareen, Khan Nasrin Jahan, Ayesha Mahzabin Chowdhury, Debashish Kumar Ghosh
Int. J. Biosci.23( 2), 92-105, August 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


An unhealthy lifestyle among adolescents is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of adolescents from rural and urban areas. A comparative cross-sectional study among 420 adolescents (both urban and rural) who were selected purposively, attending in selected rural and urban secondary schools of Comilla from January to December 2019 with aim to compare lifestyle practices between rural and urban adolescents studying in secondary schools of Bangladesh. Data were collected by face-to-face interviewing of the respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire and a check list after having informed verbal consent. The collected data were checked for completeness and cross checked for consistency. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.0. Strict confidentiality was maintained for the collected data, while all sorts of ethical issues were taken into consideration. Among 420 students, 57.2% boys and 43.4% girls studying in urban schools and 42.8% boys and 56.6% of girls in rural schools, 65.1% rural students were underweight compared to 34.9%urban students as well as 60.6% urban students were overweight compared to 39.4%rural students and 72.7% urban students were obese compared to 27.3% rural students. Regarding the student’s physical activity, statistically significant difference between urban and rural students were found as skipping (71.1% vs 28.9%; p=0.003); aerobics (58.3% vs 41.7%; p=0.038); swimming (31.5% vs 68.5%; p=0.000); cricket (56.0% vs 44.0%; p=0.046); football (57.9% vs 42.1%; p=0.041); basketball (77.8% vs 22.2%; p=0.016) were found. Urban students took mixed food 55% while rural students took 45% only. Fat intake was predominantly higher among urban students (80%) compared to rural students (20%). In this study 75% of urban students never ate fresh vegetables while 58.5% of rural students ate vegetables once a day. of urban red to urban students 56.5% rural students never took junk food, 57.8% rural students never took soft drinks and 64.9%rural students never took food in restaurants. The lifestyles of adolescent in the rural and urban areas are lightly different. Prevalence of underweight was higher among rural children and overweight and obesity was higher among urban students. To avoid overweight and obesity, adolescents should know about BMI and should maintain healthy lifestyles also initiate health promotion efforts, the level of awareness should be improved among the adolescents.


Abegunde DO, Mathers CD, Adam T, Ortegon M, Strong K. 2007. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet 37, 1929-38 p.

Abuzaid OI. 2012. Eating patterns and physical activity characteristics among urban and rural students in Saudi Arabia.Nutrition and Health Sciences Dissertation & Thesis. Retrieved from:

Andersen FL, Nees M, Sandstad B, Bjorneboe G, Eaa Drevon C. 1995. Dietary intake among Norwegian adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 555-564 p.

Andersen FL, Nees M, Bjorneboe G, Eaa Drevon C. 1997. Food habits among 13-year-old Norwegian adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Naringsforskning, Supplement 41, 150- 154 p.

Aziz MFA, Devi MN. 2012. Nutritional Status and Eating Practices among Children in Selected Urban and Rural Kindergarten in Selangor, Malaysia. Asian the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4(4), 116-131 p.

BergstroÈm E, Hernell H, Persson LAÊ. 993. Dietary changes in wedish adolescents. Acta Paediatrica 82, 472-480 p.

Bhuiyan MU, Zaman S, Ahmed T. 2013. Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity among urban school children and adolescents in Bangladesh: a case–control study. BMC Pediatrics 13, 72 p.

Bulbul T, Hoque M. 2014. Prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Bangladesh: findings from a countrywide epidemiological study. BMC Pediatrics 14, 86 p.

Cameroon pyramid Source. 2005. US Census Bureau international database. Available from URL: [Accessed 15 September].

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2003. Physical activity levels among children aged 9–13 years—United States 52(33), 785–788 p.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2004. Participation in high school physical education–United States, 1991-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53(36), 844-7 p.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2013. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63(4), 1-168 p.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014. Healthy Weight: Assessing Your Weight: BMI: About BMI for Children and Teens. Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2014].

Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) factsheet. 2018. Highlights 2015-17 Preliminary data. 2018. Copenhagen. WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Coli c-Bari I. 2004. Comparison of dietary habits in the urban and rural Croatian schoolchildren. European Journal of Nutrition 43(3), 169-74 p.

Das SK, Chisti MJ, Huq S, Malek MA, Vanderlee L, Salam MA, Ahmed T, Faruque ASG, Mamun AA. 2013. Changing trend of overweight and obesity and their associated factors in an urban population of Bangladesh 4, 678–689 p.

Davy BM, Harrell K, Stewart J, King DS. 2004. Body weight status, dietary habits, and physical activity levels of middle school-aged children in rural Mississippi. Southern Medical Journal 9(6), 571-577 p.

Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA, Beddome, M, Kilanowski CK, Paluch R. 2001. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Decreasing Fat and Sugar Intake in Families at Risk for Childhood Obesity 9(3), 171-178 p.

Felton GM, Dowda M, Ward DS. 2002. .Differences in physical activity between Black and White girls living in rural and urban areas. Journal of School Health 72(6), 250-255 p.

Global action plan for the prevention and control of no communicable diseases (2013–2020). Geneva: World Health Organization. (2013) [accessed September 2018],

Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s health and well-being – Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2015. International report from the 2013/2014 survey Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe).

Guthold R, Cowan MJ, Autenrieth CS, Kann L, Riley LM. 2010. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among schoolchildren: a 34-country comparison. The Journal of Pediatrics 157(1), 43-49 p.

Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, Guthold R,  Haskell W, Ekelund U. 2012. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet 380 (9838), p 247-57.

Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll M. D, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. 2004. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 2846-2850 p.

HoÈglund D, Samuelson G, Mark A. 1998. Food habits in Swedish adolescents in relation to socioeconomic condition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(784), 789.

International Society for Physical Activity Health. 2017. The Bangkok Declaration physical activity for global health and sustainable development. British Journal of Sports Medicine 51, (19), 1389-91 p.

Ismailov RM, Leatherdale ST. 2010. Rural-urban differences in overweight and obesity among a large sample of adolescents in Ontario. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 5, 351–60 p.

Kelishadi R. 2007. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiologic Review. 29(1), 62–76 p.

Kickbusch I. 1986. Lifestyles and health. Social Science & Medicine 22(2), 117-24 p.

Kundapur R, Baisil S. 2017. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore. Indian journal of community health 29(1), 75-80 p.

Liu J, Bennett KJ, Harun N, Probst JC. 2008. Urban-rural differences in overweight status and physical inactivity among US children aged 10–17 years. The Journal of Rural Health 24, 407–415 p.

Mahan LK, Arlin M, Krause’s food nutrition and diet therapy, 8th edn. Philadelphia. Mandal A. 2014. Obesity and Fast Food.News Medical. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed on 27.01.2020]

Marti A, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Hebebrand J, Martínez JA. 2004. Genes, lifestyles and obesity. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders 28(3), p 29-36.

McMurray RG, Herrel JS, Bangdiwali SI, Deng S. 1999. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and obesity for rural and urban elementary school children. The Journal of Rural Health 15(4), 365-374 p.

McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Deng S, Bradley C. B, Cox LM, Bangdiwala SI. 2000. The influence of physical activity, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity on the weight status of adolescents 8, 130-139 p.

McNaughton S, Crawford D, Campbell K, Abbott G, Ball K. 2006. Eating behaviors of urban and rural children from disadvantaged background. Retrieved from

Mohsin F, Tayyeb S, Baki A, Sarker S, Zabeen B, Begum T, Azad K, Nahar N. 2010. Prevalence of obesity among affluent school children in Dhaka. Mymensingh Medical Journal 19(4), 549–554 p.

Moreno LA, Sarria A, Fleta J, Rodriguez G, Gonzalez JM, Bueno M. 2001. Sociodemographic factors and trends on overweight prevalence in children and adolescents in Aragon (Spain) from 1985 to 1995. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 54, 921–927 p.

Must A, Bandini LG, Tybor DJ, Phillips SM, Naumova EN, Dietz WH. 2007. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 15(7), p 1774-81.

Nasrin N, Asaduzzaman M, Tithi NS, Rigun S. H, Shahjin F, Shanta MA. 2016. A Comparative Study on Potential Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity among Rural and Urban Population of Bangladesh. 5(3), 41-52 p.

Nakamura PM, Teixeira IP, Papini CB., Lemos N, Nazario ME, Kokubun E. 2013. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano 15(5), 517-26 p.

National Research Council. Diet and health. 1989. Implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington DC, National Academy Press.

Nana, L. (2002). Stability and predictors of eating behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Doctoral thesis. University of Oslo, Oslo.

Nicklas TA, Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Berenson G. 2001. Eating patterns,dietary quality and obesity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(6), 599-608 p.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. 2014. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. The Journal of the American Medical Association 311(8), 806-814 p.

Panasiuk L, Wdowiak L, Paprzycki P, Lukas W. 2008. Occurrence ofoverweight and obesity among adult rural population in Eastern Poland. Relationship between obesity and selected socio-economic factors. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 15(1), 149-52 p.

Physical activity strategy for the WHO European Region (2016–2025). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. [Accessed September 2018].

Popkin BM. 2002. An overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: The Bellagio meeting. Public Health Nutrition 5(1A), 93–103 p.

Rezende LFM, Sa TH, Mielke GI, Viscondi JYK, Rey-Lopez JP, Garcia LMT. 2016. AAll-cause mortality attributable to sitting time. Analysis of 54 countries worlwide. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine 51(2), 253-63 p.

Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts D. 2010. Generation of M2 Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds.A Kaiser Family Foundation Study.

Roxane R. 2008. Rural–Urban differences in physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight prevalence of children. The Journal of Rural Health 24(1), 49-54 p.

Samuelson G, Grahne Ân H, Arvidsson R. (1971). An epidemiological study of child health and nutrition in a northern Swedish country. VI. Relationship between general and oral health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, 1361-1373.

Serra-Majem L, García-Closas R, Ribas L, Pérez-Rodrigo C, Aranceta J. 2001. Food patterns of Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents: The enKid Study. Public Health Nutrition 4(6A), 1433-8 p.

Simeon N, A, Linus IA, Chukwunonye AE, Chidimma NN, Mmaduneme OK, Emeka OM. Dabeluchukwu AE. 2015. Assessment of nutritional status among primary school pupils in rural and urban areas of anambra state. European Journal of Preventive Medicine 3(2), 34-38 p.

Sport and physical activity. 2018. (Special Euro barometer 472). Brussels: European Commission.

Stone JA. 2016. Canadian Physical Activity Clinical Practice Guidelines: Running on Empty? The Canadian Journal of Cardiology 32(4), 407-9 p.

Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M. 2010. Systematic review demonstrating thatbreakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition 50, 113–119 p.

Trost SG, Kerr LM, Ward DS, Pate RR. 2001. Physical activity and determinants of physical activity in obese and non-obese children. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders 25 (6), 822-9 p.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Wang Y. 2001. Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. International Journal of Epidemiology 30(5), 1129 p.

Wang Y, Lobstein T. 2006. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity 1(1), 11–25 p.

Westenhoefer J. 2002. Establishing dietary habits during childhood for long-term weight control. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 46(1), 18–23 p.

Wilson DM, Ciliska D. 1984. Lifestyle assessment: Development and use of the Fantastic Checklist. Canadian Family Physician 30, 1527-32 p.

Xu F, Yin XM, Tong SL. 2007. Association between excess bodyweight and intake of red meat and vegetables among urban and rural adult Chinese in Nanjing, China. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 19, 3–9 p.

Yannakoulia M, Karayiannis D, Terzidou M, Kokkevi A, Sidossis LS. 2004. Nutrition related habits of Greek adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 580-6.

Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. 2010. Associations of television content type and obesity in children. American Journal of Public Health 100(2), 334-40 p.