J. Bio. Env. Sci.14(5), 53-70, May 2019
As the World’s population continues to grow, technology must be developed to treat wastes of all kinds, and at the same time the energy demand of this increasing population must be met. In both cases waste treatment and energy conversion must be performed with increasing attention to air and water quality on the Earth. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) systems have the potential to address these problems in an environmentally sound way. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising technology for destroying highly toxic organic compounds present in aqueous waste streams. Capitalizing on the properties of water in the supercritical, spontaneous and rapid oxidation of hydrocarbons is obtained with a very high efficiency, forming water, carbon dioxide, and depending on the species of heteroatom present in the organic wasteone or more acids. The extreme operating conditions (i.e., the presence of acids under highly oxidizing conditions in SCWO feeds, high temperatures and high pressures), however, require identification and development of constructional materials that are capable of withstanding such an environment. By capitalizing on the properties of water above its critical point (374oC and 22.4 MPa for pure water), supercritical water technology can potentially be exploited for both waste destruction and energy generation. In the first case, supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) provides rapid and complete oxidation of organics, including chemical nerve agent, with high destruction efficiencies at typical operating temperatures.
Ahluwalia KS. 1996. Internal Platelet Heat Source and Method of Use in a Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor. The United States Patent 5, 424-571.
Anders VG, Lars BS, Kim MC. 2001. Treatment of different wastes by supercritical water oxidation. Twentieth IT3 conference United State of America.
ASM Hand book. 1987. Corrosion, 9(th) ed., Materials Park, OH, ASM International 13, 641.
Baker LL, Wood SA. 2000. “Experimental Study of Metal Corrosion in Supercritical Brines: Application to Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Wastes,” Army Research Office Report No: ARO 36324.1- CH-DPS University of Idaho. Environment Australia 1997.
Barnes CM, Marshall RW, Mizia RE, Herring JS, Peterson ES. 1993. “Identification of Technical Constraints for Treatment of DOE Mixed Waste by Supercritical Water Oxidation,” EGG-WTD-10768.
Boukis N, Claussen N, Ebert K, Janssen R, Schacht M. 1997. Corrosion screening tests of high-performance ceramics in supercritical water containing oxygen and hydrochloric acid. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 17, 71-76.
Bramlette TT, Mills BE, Hencken KR, Brynildson ME, Johnston SC, Hruby JM, Feemster HC, Odegard BC, Modell M. 1990. Destruction of DOE/DP Surrogate Wastes with Supercritical Water Oxidation Technology.” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND 90- 8229.
Downey KW, Snow RH, Hazlebeck DA, Roberts AJ. 1995. In Innovations in Supercritical Fluids, Science and Technology (Symposium Series 608, American chemistry society 608(21), 313.
Eliaz N, Mitton DB, Ronald ML. 2003. Review of materials issues in supercritical water oxidation system and the need for corrosion control. Transactions of The Indian Institute of Metals 56, 307-314.
Fassbender AG, Robertus RJ, Daverman GS. 1995. The Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel: A Reactor for Corrosive Applications. First Int. Workshop on Supercritical Water Oxidation, Jacksonville Florida.
Fodi S, Konys J, Hausselt J, Schmidt H, Casal V.1998. Corrosion ’98, Paper 416, NACE, Houston TX.
Fourcault A, García-Jaranab, Sánchez-Onetob J, Mariasa F, Portelab JR. 2009. Supercritical water oxidation of phenol with air. Experimental results and modeling. Chemical Engineering Journal 152, 227-233.
Foy BR, Waldthausen K, Sedillo M, Buelow SJ. 1996. Hydrothermal Processing of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in a Titanium Reactor. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 2790-2799.
Franck EU. 1976. High Temperature, High-Pressure Electrochemistry in Aqueous Solutions; NACE: Houston, TX.
Garcia KM, Mizia R.1993. “Corrosion Investigation of Multilayered Ceramics and Experimental Nickel Alloys in SCWO Process Environments, First Int. Workshop on Supercritical Water Oxidation,” Jacksonville Florida p 35.
Garcia KM. 1996. “Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing,” INEL report INEL-96/0267.
Gloyna EF, Li L. 1999. Supercritical Water Oxidation Research and Development Update. The Journal of scholar’s portal 14, 182-192.
Hazlebeck DA, Downey KW, Jensen DD, Spritzer MH. 1995. In Proc. 12th ICPWS (Begell House, New York 632-647.
Hong GT. 1999. Reactor engineering and phase separations in SCWO, Report on the Workshop Organized by the U.S. Army Research Office and the Forschungs zentrumKarlsruhe p 7-10.
Huang S, Daehling K, Carleson TE, Abdel-latif M, Taylor P, Wai C, Propp A.1989. Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology. Chapter 19, 287-300.
Jason MP, William HG, Jefferson W. Tester. 2006. Co-oxidation of methyl phosphonic acid and ethanol in supercritical water II: Elementary reaction rate model. Journal of Supercritical Fluids 39, 239-245.
Jay HL. 2004. Wiley’s remediation technologies handbook1.
Killilea WR, Swallow KC, Hong GT. 1992. The Fate of Nitrogen in Supercritical Water Oxidation. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 5, 72-78.
Kim HS, Yoon JH, Han JH, Mitton BD, Latanision RM , Kim YS. 2004. Influence of Chromizing treatment on the corrosion behavior of AISI 316 stainless steel in supercritical water oxidation. Metal and materials international journal 10, 83-88.
Kim YS, Mitton DB, Latanision RM. 2000. Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Chloride Containing Supercritical Water Oxidation System. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 17, 58-66.
Konys J, Fodi S, Ruck A, Hausselt J. 1999. Corrosion ’99, Paper 253, NACE, Houston, TX.
Kriksunov LB, Macdonald DDJ. 1995. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 142, 4069.
Kritzer P, Boukis N, Dinjus E.1998. Corrosion of Alloy 625 in High-Temperature, High-Pressure Sulfate Solutions. Corrosion the journal of science and engineering 54, 689 699.
Kritzer P, Boukis N, Dinjus E. 1998. Corrosion of Alloy 625 in High-Temperature, High-Pressure Sulfate Solutions. The journal of science and engineering 54,11.
La Roche HL, Weber M, Trepp Ch. 1995. “Rationale for the Film cooled Coaxial Hydrothermal Burner (FCHB) for Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO),” First International Workshop on Supercritical Water Oxidation, Jacksonville Florida.
LaJeunesse CA, Mills BE, Brown BG. 1994. SupercriticalWater Oxidation of Ammonium Picrate, Sandia Report SAND95-8202âUC-706; Sandia National Laboratories: Albuquerque, NM. p 31.
Latanision RM, Shaw RW. 1993. Co-Chairs, Corrosion in Supercritical Water Oxidation Systems – Summary of a Workshop held at MIT, Report No. MIT-EL 93-006.
Latanision RM. 1995. Corrosion science, corrosion engineering and advanced technology Corrosion Science, Corrosion Engineering, and Advanced Technologies. Corrosion 51, 14.
Lee G, Nunoura T, Matsumura Y, Yamamoto K. 2002. Comparison of the effects of the addition of NaOH on the decomposition of 2-chlorophenol and phenol in supercritical water and under supercritical water oxidation conditions. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 24, 239-250.
Levlin E. 2003. Sustainable and integrated sewage and organic waste handing with global warming impact, a case study of a land and energy recovery by SCWO or anaerobic digestion Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
Lian YW, Meng MM, Xiao CH, Guo MZ, Hai YZ, Hai RT, Zhen XC, Hong HZ. 2001. Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents in Supercritical Water. Journal of Advanced Materials Research 356-360, 2610-2615.
Lin KS, Wang HP, Li MC. 1998. Oxidation of 2, 4-DichlopiI-Ienol in supercritical water. Chemosphere 36, 2075-2083.
Marronea PA, Hodesb M, Smith KA, Tester JW. 2004. Salt precipitation and scale control in supercritical water oxidation part B, commercial/full-scale applications.The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 29, 289-312.
McGuinness TG. 1995. Developments in Transpiring Wall SCWO Reactor Technology,” First Int. Workshop on Supercritical Water Oxidation, Jacksonville Florida.
McKay P, Mitton DB. 1985. An Electrochemical Investigation of Localized. Corrosion on Titanium in Chloride Environments. National Association of Corrosion Engineers 41, 52-62.
Mitton DB, Kim YS, Yoon JH, Take S, Latanision RM. 1999. Corrosion ’99, Paper 257, NACE, Houston,TX.
Mitton DB, Zhang SH, Han EH, Hautanen KE, Latanision RM. 1996. In Proc. 13th ICC, Melbourne, Australia.
Mitton DB, Yoon JH, Cline JA, Kim HS, Eliaz N, Latanision RM. 2000. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Based Alloys in Supercritical Water Oxidation Systems. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research 39, 4689-4696.
Norby BC. 1993. Supercritical Water Oxidation Bench scale Testing Metallurgical Analysis Report. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Report, EGG-WTD-10675.
Oneto JS, Portela JR, Nebot E, Ossa EMDl. 2007. Hydrothermal oxidation: Application to the treatment of different cutting fluid wastes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 144, 639-644.
Orzalli JC. 1994. Preliminary Corrosion Studies of Candidate Materials for Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor Systems. S.M. Thesis, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge.
Rice SF, Steeper RR. 1998. Oxidation rates of common organic compounds in supercritical water . Journal of Hazardous Materials 59, 261-278.
Schacht M, Boukis N, Dinjus E, Ebert K, Janssen R, Meschke F, Claussen N. 1998. Corrosion of zirconia ceramics in acidic solutions at high pressures and temperatures. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 18, 2373-2376.
Schacht M, Boukis N, Dinjus E. 2000. Corrosion of alumina ceramics in acidic aqueous solutation at high temperature and pressure. Journal of materials science 35, 6251-6258.
Shaw RW, Thomas BB, Antony AC, Charles AE, Franck, EU. 1991. Supercritical Water-A Medium for Chemistry. Chemical Engineering News 69, 26-39.
Steeper RR. Rice ST, Kennedy LM, Aiken JS. 1996. Kinetics measurements of methane oxidation in supercritical water. The journal of physical chemistry 100, 184-189.
Sudhir NVK, Aki ZYD. 1996. Martin A. Abraham.Catalytic supercritical water oxidation: Stability of Cr2O3 catalyst. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers journal 42, 1995-2004.
Tebbal S, Kane RD. 1998. Development of non toxic corrosion inhibitor for mea plants. Corrosion/98, Paper 98410, NACE international san diego, Houston, TX.
Tester JW, Holgate HR, Armellini FJ, Webley PA, Killilea WR, Hong GT, Barner HE. 1994. In Emerging Technologies for Waste Management III (ACS Symposium Series 518, ACS, Washington 4, 317.
Tester JW, Holgate HR, Armellini FJ, Webley PA, Killilea WR, Hong GT, Barner HE. 1993. Emerging Technologies for Waste Management III; ACS Symposium Series 518, chapter 3. American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 35.
Thomas AJ, Gloyna EF. 1991. Corrosion Behavior of High Grade Alloys in the Supercritical Water Oxidation of Sludges. University of Texas at Austin Technical Report CRWR 229, 50.
Tiffany DM, Houser TJ, Michael E, McCarville, Houghton ME. 1984. Reactivity of Some Nitrogen-Containing Compounds at Supercritical Water Conditions. Preprints of Papers- American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry 29, 56-59.
Vogel F, Smith K, Tester, William A. 2002. Peters.Engineering kinetics for hydrothermal oxidation of hazardous organic substances. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal 48,1827-1839.
Weber M, Wellig B, Von Rohr R. 1999. SCWO Apparatus Design – Towards Industrial Availability. Corrosion ’99, Paper 258, NACE International, Houston, TX.
Yoshito O, Rumiko H, Kazuo Y. 2006. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Waste Treatment by Supercritical Water Oxidation. Journal of Environmental Sciences 13, 213-218.
Zhang L, Ke W, Gua H, Han E. 2001. Corrosion Behavior of Materials in Supercritical Water Oxidation System .The search for oil CORROSION Houston Tx.