Surface water quality assessment in Gilan Province, Iran

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Research Paper 01/05/2015
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Surface water quality assessment in Gilan Province, Iran

Mohammad Ebrahimi,Mohammad Javad Nematollahi, Alireza Moradian, Sadegh Adineh, Rasoul Esmaeili
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 5), 269-280, May 2015.
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Surface water in Gilan province is assessed in order to determine its hydrogeochemistry and irrigation water quality using 55 water samples. In this regard, concentration of major ions and physicochemical parameters including Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3, Cl, SO42- and CO2-3 pH, EC and TDS were determined. The average content of the major cations and anions follow as: Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ and HCO3 > SO42- > Cl > CO2-3, respectively. Hydrogeochemical composition of surface water is a mixture of water types including CaMgHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl. Nonetheless, themajority of the samples has CaMgHCO3  water type. Hence, alkaline earths and strong acid anions exceed alkalis and weak acid anions, respectively. Based on Gibbs diagrams and ionic ratios, weathering of silicate minerals is the main process controlling the surface water chemistry. Saturation indices (SIs) indicate that dissolution of carbonate minerals also plays an important role in regulating the surface water chemistry. Although sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and permeability index (PI) in most of the samples are below the standard, nonetheless, residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and Total hardness (TH) indicate significant irrigation water unsuitability and hence thenecessity for caution and future study.


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