Symbiotic fungal biodiversity, structure, role and benefits to their host plants-discovering microbes with potential agricultural significance: A literature probe

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Review Paper 11/03/2024
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Symbiotic fungal biodiversity, structure, role and benefits to their host plants-discovering microbes with potential agricultural significance: A literature probe

Abstract

We live in an enclosed system, the planet Earth, where every element is considered important to all other elements within it. The biosphere which constitutes the living and the nonliving things of all the Earth’s ecosystems represent a highly interconnected system. The interconnectedness of every component is indicative that all biotic and abiotic constituents within the system are important and thus necessary for its resilience, sustainability, and perpetual survival. Long before human emerged as a dominant species in the planet, the Earth is considered naturally resilient and sustainable. The concepts of ecosystem biodiversity and environmental conservation started to become a necessity when anthropogenic interventions began to dominate the planet. Threats brought by industrialization, urbanization and technology advancements also began to emerge. The underlying theories in ecosystem biodiversity and environmental conservation may be put into practice to minimize the far-reaching effects of human-induced environmental degradation. In doing so, a clear understanding of the interconnections and associations between and among the living components as well as the non-living components of the biosphere is indispensable. To elucidate the obligatory interactions by all the biotic constituents of the biosphere, we should not only look into the key roles of plants, animals and other macro-organisms. More importantly, the compulsory roles of microorganisms should also be recognized. Fungi, bacteria and viruses are undoubtedly essential to plants and animals. Thus, associations among these key macro- and micro- players, negative or positive, must be taken into account. On top of these biotic relations, the impact of the abiotic components and how organisms subsequently affect these nonliving factors should not and should never be taken out of the picture.

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