Taxonomic study of freshwater microalgal diversity and its optimum culturing condition of District Karak, Pakistan

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Research Paper 17/03/2024
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Taxonomic study of freshwater microalgal diversity and its optimum culturing condition of District Karak, Pakistan

Ayesha Hanif, Fahim Hussain Shah, Abdul Samad Mumtaz, Tauseef Ullah, Muhammad Atif Azeem, Mushtaq Ahmad, Asghar Ali Shah
J. Bio. Env. Sci.24( 3), 97-116, March 2024.
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Abstract

Algae are photosynthetic and predominantly aquatic organisms that produce up to half of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. In this study, the algal flora of district Karak has been isolated, identified, and explored for diversity based on its optimum in-vitro culturing and microscopic technique. Microalgal samples were collected from freshwater bodies of ecologically diverse sites of district Karak. The microalgae samples were collected from February to April (spring season) and August to September (summer season) in 2020-2022. In the aseptic environment, three different types of media (BBM, MBBM, and BG-11) were used to evaluate microalgal growth parameters. The fluctuation in temperature, pH, water density, and nutrient availability varies with species distribution; however, BBM media was shown to be more optimal and standard than others for algae cultivation. A total of 33 microalgae strains were investigated that belong to 4 classes, 10 orders, 12 families, and 17 genera. Among them 5 species were cyanobacteria, 16 species were green microalgae, and 12 species from Diatoms; in which Bacillariaceae was the dominant family with 6 species and their contribution was 19%. The 2nd most dominant families were Scenedesmaceae, Volvocaceae, and Desmidiaceae with each 4 species respectively and their contribution was 12%. The other families Oscillatoriaceae followed by Chlorococcaceae (9%) while some families represented only two species (6%) that were Fragilariaceae, Pinnulariaceae and  Nostocaceae, and Gomphonemataceae, Naviculaceae, Chaetophoraceae were one (3%) species each. These species belonged to 17 genera and 12 families; three key categories of microalgae (Cyanobacteria, Green Algae, and Diatoms) were reported in this study area. This study’s scope is to examine the scientific studies of microalgae diversity from various habitats of fresh water and investigate the optimal culture conditions for these algae growth which is essential for multiple applications. Hence, the present taxonomic findings demonstrate that District Karak is a rich source of microalgae biomes unexplored till now.

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