J. Bio. Env. Sci.12( 3), 273-282, March 2018
There seems to exist a knowledge gap in the information available on diversity or spatio-temporal distribution of mammals in Bannerghatta National Park (hereinafter BNP), as very few studies have been conducted here in the past decade. Hence, an evaluation of the richness, seasonal habitat use and diel activity patterns of mammals in the BNP was carried out from camera-trap records obtained between the years 2012 and 2016. This assessment has ascertained the presence of 17 terrestrial mammals belonging to 5 orders and 12 families, including 8 threatened species. This includes the first confirmed evidence of 3 species, tiger (Panthera tigris), rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus) and honey badger (Mellivora capensis). Eight species were recorded in all three seasons, suggesting there are resident populations of these species in Bannerghatta National Park. Movement of unauthorized people, domestic and feral animals within the forest, quantified from photo-captures, were found to be low with only 23 encounters (6.27%), however, it occurred up to 2.2km from the forest boundary. Our analysis provides guidance on suitable season, operational duration and deployment positioning for camera-trap research in this landscape, as well as improving our understanding of mammals in this part of south India.
Gopalakrishna SP, Kaonga ML, Somashekar RK, Suresh HS, Suresh R. 2015. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India. European Journal of Ecology 1(2), 12-27. https://doi.org/10.1515/eje-2015-0013
Griffiths M, van Schaik CP. 1993. The impact of human traffic on the abundance and activity periods of Sumatran Rain Forest wildlife. Conservation Biology 7(3), 623-626.
Henschel P, Ray J. 2003. Leopards in African Rainforests: Survey and monitoring techniques. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2017-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on 14 Apr. 2017.
Karikalan V. 2013. Wildlife management plan for Bannerghatta National Park 2013-14 to 2017-18. Karnataka Forest Department.
Kays R, Slauson K. 2008. Remote Cameras. In: Long R, MacKay P, Zielinski W and Ray J, Eds, Noninvasive survey methods for carnivores. Island Press, Washington DC p. 110-140.
Krishnan A, Panwar S, Gayathri A, Phalke S, Venkateshaiah DA. 2016. A badger in Bannerghatta: An opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(5), 8820-8823.
Kumara HN, Sapthagirish MK, Murugesan M. 2011. Assessment of occurrence and abundance of large mammals, birds and woody plants in Bannerghatta National Park, Karnataka. Technical report submitted to Karnataka Forest Department, Bannerghatta National Park, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Menon V. 2014. Indian mammals: A Field Guide. Hachette Book Publishing (India) Pvt. Ltd, Gurgaon.
O’Connor KM, Nathan LR, Liberati MR, Tingley MW, Vokoun JC, Rittenhouse TAG. 2017. Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset. PLoS ONE 12(4), e0175684. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone
Prater SH. 1971. The Book of Indian animals. Bombay Natural History Society. Oxford University Press, Mumbai.
Rowcliffe JM, Field J, Turvey ST, Carbone C. 2008. Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 1228-1236. https://doi.org/ 10. 1111/ j.1365-2664.2008.01473.x
Santiapillai C, Chambers MR, Ishwaran N. 1982. Leopard Panthera pardus fusca (Meyer 1794) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, and observations relevant to its conservation. Biological Conservation 23, 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(82)90050-7
Schmitz L, Motani R. 2010. Morphological differences between the eyeballs of nocturnal and diurnal amniotes revisited from optical perspectives of visual environments. Vision Research 50, 936-946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2010.03.009
Silveira L, Jácomo ATA, Diniz-Filho JAF. 2003. Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: A comparative evaluation. Biological Conservation 114(3), 351-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)0003
Trolliet F, Huynen M, Vermeulen C, Hambuckers A. 2014. Use of camera traps for wildlife studies. A review. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 18(3), 446-454.
Van Schaik CP, Griffiths M. 1996. Activity periods of Indonesian Rain Forest mammals. Biotropica 28(1), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.2307/2388775
Varma S, Anand VD, Gopalakrishna SP, Avinash KG, Nishant MS. 2009. Landscape, Vegetation and Invasive Species. In: Ecology, conservation and management of the Asian Elephant in Bannerghatta National Park, southern India. Asian Elephant Ecology and Conservation Reference Series no.1. A Rocha India and Asian Nature Conservation Foundation, Bengaluru p. 28-51.
World Weather Online. 2017. Retrieved from www.worldweatheronline.com/bangalore-weather-verages/karnataka/in.aspx, Data provided by WorldWeatherOnline.com. Accessed on 17 Apr. 2017.
Zapata-Ríos G, Branch LC. 2016. Altered activity patterns and reduced abundance of native mammals in sites with feral dogs in the high Andes. Biological Conservation 193, 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioco.