J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(5), 65-74, November 2014
Being located in arid and semi-arid area and increasing water consumption, Iran is going to face the threat of water crisis in the coming years. So, in order to deal with this problem care must be taken in treating different types of water consumption. Virtual water is one of the issues to be considered. The water being used in production processes is called virtual water a part of which is kept in product. When the goods enter the global market, the virtual water trade occurs. It is expected that trade in virtual water would decrease water consumption in national and international level due to a more efficient and professional use of water. It is possible to calculate productivity at different levels, namely crop, livestock, forestry, aquaculture and production units, farms, irrigation system, irrigation basins and natural supplies (pasture and green). Increased productivity, especially from the perspective of the value of production per unit of water consumed directly or indirectly, could be an important strategy for improving the livelihoods of local communities. The results of this study indicate that during the years under study, the virtual water trade balance was negative in Iran, and this country has become an importer of virtual water.
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