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The Causes of Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation and its Management

Research Paper | January 1, 2022

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Bakhtawar Urooj, Nadia Mehreen, Munazza Laraibe, Zarak Khan, Zohra Samreen, Bushra Aziz, Beenish Mahjabeen, Nargis Taj, Ghazala Taj, Muhammad Kamran Taj

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Int. J. Biosci.20( 1), 91-115, January 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.1.91-115


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Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract may be suspected based upon the patient’s clinical presentation, or the diagnosis becomes obvious through a report of extra luminal “free” gas or fluid or fluid collection on diagnostic imaging performed to evaluate abdominal pain or another symptom. Clinical manifestations depend somewhat on the organ affected and the nature of the contents released (gas, succus entericus, stool), as well as the ability of the surrounding tissues to contain those contents. Intestinal perforation can present acutely or in an indolent manner (e.g., abscess or intestinal fistula formation). A confirmatory diagnosis is made primarily using abdominal imaging studies, but on occasion, exploration of the abdomen (open or laparoscopic) may be needed to make a diagnosis. Specific treatment depends upon the nature of the disease process that caused the perforation. Some etiologies are amenable to a nonoperative approach, while others will require emergent surgery.


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The Causes of Gastrointestinal Tract Perforation and its Management

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