Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | May 1, 2012

| Download

The dynamics of land use and land cover change in Nakasongola district

Emmanuel Zziwa, Geoffrey Kironchi, Charles Gachene, Swidiq Mugerwa, Denis Mpairwe

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.2(5), 61-73, May 2012


JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


Landsat (TM) of 1986 and 1990 and Landsat (ETM+) of 2000 and 2004 for Nakasongola district were obtained and analyzed using the ILWIS 3.6 software using unsupervised classification. An overlay analysis of satellite images was conducted in order to understand the patterns of land use and cover change. Cultivation, coniferous plantations, bush and woody encroachment were the most pervasive land use and cover types encroaching on grasslands. The area covered by grassland decreased by 13.1% between 1986 and 2004. Between 1986 and 1990, much of the grasslands were converted to bushland (38,608 ha), woodland (19,659 ha) and cropland (9,159 ha) while between 1990 and 2000 were converted to woodland (21,838 ha), cropland (5,912 ha) and bushland (4,506 ha) and between 2000 and 2004, 33,354, ha were converted to woodland, 12,029 ha to bushland and 6,114 ha to cropland. Bush and woody encroachment engulfed 65%, 50% and 54% of grasslands in the periods of 1986 – 1990, 1990 – 2000 and 2000 – 2004 respectively. The rate at which grassland is lost to other land use/cover types is greater than the rate of grassland expansion meaning that grasslands are at the verge of disappearing if no conservation measures are instated to protect them.


Copyright © 2012
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

The dynamics of land use and land cover change in Nakasongola district

Andrieu N, Josien E, Duru M. 2007. Relationship between diversity of grassland vegetation, field characteristicts and land use management practices assessed at the farm level. Journal of Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 120, 359 – 369.

Archer  S,  Schimel  DS,  Holland  EA.  1995. Mechanisms of shrubland expansion: land use, climate or Carbon dioxide. Climate change 29, 91-99.

Asner GP, Elmore AJ, Olander LP, Martin RE, Harris AT. 2004. Grazing systems, ecosystem responses and global change. Annual Review, Environmental Resources 29, 261-299.

Brown JR, Archer S. 1999. Shrub invasion of grassland: recruitment is continuous and not regulated by herbaceous biomass or density. Ecology 80, 2385–2396.

Byenkya GS. 2004. Impact of undesirable plant communities on the carrying capacity and livestock performance in pastoral systems of South-Western Uganda. PhD. Thesis Texas A & M University, USA.

Chapin FS, Sturm M, Serreze M, McFadden J, Key J. 2005. Role of land-surface changes in arctic summer warming. Science 310, 657–660.

Ebanyat P, Nico de Ridder, Andre de Jager, Delve DJ, Bekunda AM, Giller KE. 2010. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda. Journal of Population and Environment 31, 474–506.

Foley JA, Kutzbach JE, Coe MT, Levis S. 1994. Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch. Nature 371, 52–54.

Geneletti D, Gorte BGH. 2003. A method for object-oriented land cover classification combining Landsat TM data and aerial photographs. Int. J. Remote Sensing 24, 1273 – 1286.

Heckbert P. 1982. Color image quantization for frame buffer display. Computer Graphics 16, 297-307.

Hughes RF, Archer S, Asner GP, Wessman CA, McMurtry C, Nelson J. 2006. Changes in aboveground primary production and carbon and nitrogen pools accompanying woody plant encroachment in a temperate savanna. Global Change Biol. 12, 1733–1747.

Huxman T, Wilcox B, Breshears D, Scott R, Snyder K. 2005. Ecohydrological implications of woody plant encroachment. Ecology 86, 308–319.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate Change 2001, Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Report of the working Group II. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 973.

Johnson HB, Polley HW, Mayeux HS. 1993. Increasing Carbon dioxide and plant-plant interactions: effects on natural vegetation. Vegetation 105, 157–70.

Knapp AK. 1993. Gas exchange dynamics in C3 and C4 grasses: consequences of differences in stomatal conductance. Ecology 74, 113-123.

Knoop WT, Walker BH. 1985. Interactions of woody and herbaceous vegetation in a southern African savanna. Journal of Ecology 73, 235-253.

Kraaij T, Ward D. 2006. Effects of rain, nitrogen, fire and grazing on tree recruitment and early survival in bush-encroached savanna, South Africa. Plant Ecology 186, 235–246.

Lambin EF, Turner BL, Helmut JG, Agbola SB, Angelsen A. 2001. The causes of land-use and land cover change: moving beyond the myths. Journal of Global Environmental Change 11, 261 – 269.

Lambin EF, Baulies X, Bockstael N, Fischer G, Krug T. 1999. Land-use and land-cover change (LUCC):Implementation strategy. IGBP Report No. 48, IHDP Report No. 10, Stockholm, Bonn.

Langdale-Brown I, Osmaston HA, Wilson JG. 1964. The vegetation of Uganda and its bearing on land-use. CABI direct. P. 147.

Maitima JM, Olson JM, Mugatha SM, Mugisha S, Mutie IT. 2010. Land use changes, impacts and options for sustaining productivity and livelihoods in the basin of lake Victoria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 12, 189 – 207.

Mugasi SK, Sabiiti EN, Tayebwa M. 2000. The economic implications of bush encroachment on livestock farming in rangelands of Uganda. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17, 64 – 69.

Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Mpairwe D, Bakuneeta C, Nderitu J, Zziwa E. 2011a. Farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of the termite problem in semi-arid Nakasongola. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(13), 3183-3191

Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Mpairwe D, Bakuneeta C, Nderitu J, Zziwa E. 2011b. Termite assemblage structure on Grazing lands in Semi-arid Nakasongola. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2(5), 848-859.

Mwavu EN, Witkowski ETF. 2008. Land-use and cover changes (1988–2002) around Budongo forest reserve, NW Uganda: Implications for forest and woodland sustainability. Journal of Land degradation and development 19, 606–622.

NEMA (National Environment Management Authority). 1996. The State of the Environment Report, 1996. Kampala, Uganda

NEMA (National Environmental Management Authority). 2007. The need for sustainable utilization and management of Uganda rangeland resources. 4(20).

Odada   EO,  Ochola  WO,  Olago  DO.  2009. Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in Lake Victoria basin. African Journal of Ecology 47 (Suppl.1), 46 – 54.

Ojima DS, Kittel TGF, Rosswall T, Walker BH. 1999. Critical issues for understanding global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol. Applic. 1, 316–325.

Owoyesigire B, Mpairwe D, Bernard B, Mutetika D, Kiwuwa G, Peden D. 2008. Socioeconomic factors affecting livestock water productivity in rain fed pastoral production systems. Proceeding of second International Forum on Water and Food. 10th – 16th November 2008, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Volume II – IFWF2 Science Session papers p. 75 – 78.

Polley HW, Johnson HB, Mayeux HS. 1992. Carbon dioxide and water fluxes of C3 annuals and C3 and C4 perennials at subambient Carbon dioxide concentrations. Funct. Ecol. 6, 693–703.

Radwanski SA. 1960. The soils and land use of Buganda. A reconnaissance survey. In the Memoirs of the research division, series 1 – Soils, Number 4. 631.44 (676.1) UGA. P. 1 – 133.

Richards JA. 1993. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis: An Introduction. 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 340.

Ruysschaert G, Poesen J, Verstraeten G, Govers G. 2007. Soil loss due to harvesting of various crop types in contasting agro-ecological environments. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 120, 153 – 165.

Sabiiti EN, Wein RW. 1987. Fire and acacia seeds: a hypothesis of colonization success. Journal of Ecology 74, 937-946.

Scanlon TM, Caylor KK, Manfreda S, Levin SA, Rodriguez-Iturbe I. 2005. Dynamic response of grass cover to rainfall variability: implications for the function and persistence of savanna ecosystems. Advances in Water Resources 28, 291–302.

Schlesinger WH, Reynolds JE, Cunningham GL, Huenneke LF, Jarrell WM, Virginia RA, Whitford WG. 1990. Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science 247, 1043–1048.

Scholes RJ, Archer SR. 1997. Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annual Reviews of Ecological Systems 28, 517–544.

Seabrook L, McAlpine C, Fensham R. 2007. Spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation change in agricultural landscapes: A case study of two brigalow (Acacia harpophylla landscapes in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 120, 211 – 228.

Skarpe C. 1990. Shrub layer dynamics under different herbivore densities in an arid savanna, Botswana Journal of Applied Ecology 27, 873-885.

Smith TM, Goodman PS. 1986. The effect of competition on the structure and dynamics of Acacia savannas in Southern Africa. Journal of Ecology 74, 1013-1044.

van Auken OW, Bush JK. 1997. Growth of Prosopis glandulosa in response to changes in above ground and belowground interference. Ecology 78, 1222–1229.

van Auken OW. 2000. Shrub invasions of North American semiarid grasslands. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 197–215.

Weintraub MN, Schimel JP. 2005. Nitrogen cycling and the spread of shrubs control changes in the carbon balance of arctic tundra ecosystems. Bioscience 55, 408–415.

Yuan F, Sawaya KE, Loeffelholz BC, Bauer ME. 2005. Land cover classification and change analysis of the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area by multitemporal Landsat remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment 98, 317 – 328.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background