The effect of water deficit on characteristics phisyological-chemical of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) varieties

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Research Paper 01/02/2015
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The effect of water deficit on characteristics phisyological-chemical of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) varieties

Mahdi Seyed Salehi, Ahmad Afkari Bajehbaj
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 2), 199-207, February 2015.
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For evaluation water deficit stress and potassium rates effects on some morpho-physiological attributes of sunflower, an experiment was conducted in a RCBD based split plot factorial design in three replications in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch research field in 2008. Four sunflower cultivars as Airfloure, Alestar, Armawirski and Ismailli, along with three rates of potassium application as control, 75 and 150 kg/ha were arranged in subplots and three rates of water application after 70, 140 and 210 mm evaporation from Class A pan were arranged in main plots. The results showed that the application of water deficit stress decreased significantly plant height, seed number per head, seed hollowness percent, leaf water potential, leaf area index, leaf relative water content, stomatal resistance and harvest index. In water application after 70 mm evaporation from Class A pan Airfloure and Alestar cultivars had the highest seed number per head and the least hollowness percent, while maximum harvest index was obtained in Airfloure cultivar in consumption of 75 kg/ha potassium sulphate and water application after 210 mm evaporation from Class A pan. Potassium affected leaf water potential and resulted to greater water content as 14.09% and supplied essential hydrostatic pressure to increasing head fresh weight consequently. Increasing irrigation level decreased leaf water potential as 31.71% and increased stomata resistance as 45.61%, consequently leading to 49.17% decrease in head fresh weight. Potassium application enhancement was paralleled with 26.69% increase in grain yield. Also stomatal resistance increased in all cultivars with increasing water application intervals.


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