The effects of marble industries effluents on water quality in Swat, Northern Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2018
Views (365) Download (19)

The effects of marble industries effluents on water quality in Swat, Northern Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal, Fazal Akbar, Sana Ullah, Imran Anwar, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Asim Nawab, Muhammad Suleman Bacha, Wajid Rashid
J. Bio. Env. Sci.13( 1), 35-43, July 2018.
Certificate: JBES 2018 [Generate Certificate]


The quality of water is being deteriorating due to rapid increase in industrialization in recent times. The marble industry is the leading waste generating industry causing pollution of both surface and groundwater sources. The current study was conducted to analyze the effects of the marble industry effluents on the groundwater parameters in District Swat, Pakistan. All the 30 groundwater samples were collected in different locations in the study area. Among these, 11 groundwater samples were collected from non-industrial zones (Bahrain and Madyan territory of District Swat) as control sample group whereas 19 groundwater samples were collected from industrial zones (Mingora, Kabal, Kanju and Barikot regions of District Swat) as exposed sample group. The groundwater samples were analyzed using different tools for various physico-chemical parameters such as taste, color, odor, temperature, turbidity, hydrogen ion concentration, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total chlorine, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, salinity and alkalinity. Most of the groundwater parameters exceeded the standards set by World Health Organization (WHO). It has been concluded from the current study that marble industry effluents have a negative impact on the quality of groundwater in District Swat. Proper treatment would be needed before using such contaminated water for different useful purposes.


Ackah M, Agyemang O, Anim AK, Osei J, Bentil NO, Kpattah L, Gyamfi ET, Hanson JEK. 2011. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation: the case study of Teiman-Oyarifa Community, Ga East Municipality, Ghana. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences1, 186-194.

Aghazadeh N, Mogaddam AA. 2010. Assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural uses in the Oshnavieh area, Northwest of Iran. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 30-40.

Ahmad H, Öztürk M, Ahmad W, Khan SM.2015. Status of Natural Resources in the Uplands of the Swat Valley Pakistan. Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems, Springer International Publishing,49-98.

Ahmed A, Mahmood T, Noonari MH, Mahar A. 2013. Risk assessment of total and faecal coliform bacteria from drinking water supply of Badin city, Pakistan. Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka 2(1), 52-64.

Ahmed E, Hassan H, Bekhit M, Jenny B, Chapman J, Hydrol. 2008. Physico-chemical parameters assessment of groundwater 362(1), 89.

Akbulut H, Gurer C. 2003. The environmental effects of waste marble and possibilities of utilization and waste minimization by using in the road layers. Proceeding of the fourth national marble symposium, Afyonkarahisar 371– 378.

American Public Health Association (APHA). 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste waters (18th ed.), Washington, DC.

Bacha MS, Nafees M, Hayat U, Nawab A, Rashid W, Khan MT. 2018. Evaluating the local perceptions of climate change vulnerability in Hindukush Himalayan region of Pakistan. World Journal of Environmental Biosciences 7(2), 10-19.

Edmunds WM. 2003.Renewable and non-renewable groundwater in semi-arid regions. Developments in Water Science 50, 265-280.

Government of Pakistan.2017. District Census Report of Swat”. Islamabad: Statistics Division, Population Census Organization.

Hussain R, Ali L, Hussain I, Khattak SA. 2014. Source identification and assessment of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals in drinking water of Islampur area, Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 47(1), 99-106.

Khan M, Khan SM, Ilyas M, Alqarawi ZAA, Ahmad EF, Abd-Allah. 2017.  Plant Species and Communities assessment in interaction with edaphic and topographic factors; an ecological study of the mount Eelum District Swat, Pakistan. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 24, 778-786,

Khan RZ, Haq F, Ullah R, Inayatullah M. 2012. The of water samples in different industrialization units of District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences 2(10), 82-85.

Khattak MA, Ahmed N, Qazi MA, Izhar A, Ilyas S, Chaudhary MN, Khan MSA, Iqbal N, Waheed T. 2012 Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes of the areas adjacent to Hudiara industrial drain, Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(4), 549-556.

Malik MA, Azam M, Saboor A. 2010. Water quality status of Upper KPK and Northern areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR). Water Resources Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Manan A, Iqbal YJ. 2007. Phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of marbles in North-Western part of Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Materials Society1(2), 68-72.

Miller GT Jr. 1997. Environmental Science: Working with the Earth (6th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing Company, California. (Chapter 11).

Mohrir A, Ramteke DS, Moghe CA, Wate SR, Sarin R. 2002. Surface and groundwater quality assessment in Bina region. IJEP 22(9), 961-969.

Nasrullah N, Bibi R, Iqbal HM, Durrani MI. 2006. Pollution load in industrial effluent and groundwater of Gadoon Amazai induatrial estate (Gaie) Swabi, NWFP. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 1(3), 18-24.

Pathak H, Limaye SN. 2012. Assessment of physico-chemical quality of groundwater in rural area nearby Sagar city, MP, India. Pelagia Research Library 3(1), 555-562.

Pre-Feasibility Study(PFS). 2010 Marble quarry project. Sindh Board of Investment, Govt. of Sindh5.

Qasim M, Hubacek K,Termansen M. 2013. Underlying and proximate driving causes of land use change in district Swat, Pakistan. Land Use Policy34, 146-157.

Quraishi R, Akbar F, Karim S, Neelab, Ahmad S, Rashid W, Ullah S. 2015.Effects of pesticides on haematology, Thyriod Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Tri-iodothyronine (T3) hormones of agricultural workers in Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Biology and Life Science 6(1), 96-107.

Sarala C, Ravi BP. 2012. Assessment of groundwater quality parameters in and around Jawaharnagar, Hyderabad, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2 (10), 1-6.

Sarkar R, Das SK, Mandal PK, Maiti HSJ. 2006. Phase and microstructure evolution drying hydrothermal solidification of clay-quartz mixture with marble dust source of reactive lime. Journal of European Ceramic Society 26, 297-304.

Shah MT, Begum S, Khan S. 2010. Pedo and biogeochemical studies of mafic and ultra-mafic rocks in the Mingora and Kabal areas, Swat, Pakistan. Environmental Earth Science 60, 1091-1102.

Sultan A, Siraj A, Fazalullah KB. 2008. Drinking Water Quality of Swat District. Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan 30(1), 1-10.

Richards LA. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. United States Department of Agriculture60.

Ullah R, Malik NR, Qadir A. 2009. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology3(12), 429-446.

Ullah S, Akmal M, Aziz F, Khan JK. 2014. Hand pumps’ water quality analysis for drinking and irrigation purposes at District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. European Academic Research 2(1), 1-12.