The influence of climate changes on the hydrobionts

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2015
Views (203) Download (7)

The influence of climate changes on the hydrobionts

Ivaylo Sirakov, Desislava Slavcheva-Sirakova
J. Bio. Env. Sci.7( 1), 149-163, July 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Climate and its changes have a direct impact on the development of the different hydrobiont species. These effects on aquatic organisms could be either positive or negative. Every species adapts specifically to natural periodic and seasonal changes, however, the response to unexpected climate changes is inconsistent and not always adequate. Climate-related factors could influence food safety via numerous pathways, namely changes in temperature and rainfall, increased frequency and intensity of extreme meteorological phenomena, ocean warming and increased acidity of aquatic habitats, higher pollution level. Climate change could also have a socioeconomical impact on population feeding i.e. agriculture, animal production (aquaculture), global trade, demographic factors and human behaviour. The paper is aimed at describing some of current and future climatic changes and their possible impact on aquatic organisms in general. Global climate influences the ocean, but the ocean also plays an essential role in global climate patterns. Aquatic organisms are actively involved in the turnover of carbon dioxide and other compounds, hence hydrobionts should not be ignored.


Abrahams MV, Mangel M, Hedges K. 2007. Predator-prey interactions and changing environments: who benefits? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 362, 2095–2104.

Allen GH, Aron W. 1958. Food of salmonid fishes of the western North Pacific Ocean. Special Science Report 237. Washington DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, p.1–11.

Archer D. 2007. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change. Biogeosciences 4, 521–544.

Beaugrand G, Reid PC, Ibanez F, Lindley JA, Edwards M. 2002. Reorganization of North Atlantic marine copepod biodiversity and climate. Science 296, 1692–1694.

Berkelmans R, Death G, Kininmonth S, Skirving WJ. 2004. A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs 23, 74–83.

Bertrand A, Gerlotto F, Bertrand S, Gutiérrez M, Alza L, Chipollini A, Diaz E, Espinoza P, Ledesma L, Quesquén R, Peraltilla S, Chavez F. 2008. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales. Progress in Oceanography 79, 264-277.

Bindoff NL, Willebrand J, Artale V, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev S, Hanawa K, Le Quéré C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y, Shum CK, Talley LD, Unnikrishnan A. 2007. Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Solomon S, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller Ed.Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Blaustein AR, Kats LB. 2003. Amphibians in a very bad light, Bioscience 53, 1028–1029.

Brinkhuis H, Schouten S, Collinson ME, Sluijs A, Damsté JSS, Dickens GR, Huber M, Cronin TM, Onodera J, Takahashi K, Bujak JP, Stein R, van der Burgh J, Eldrett JS, Harding IC, Lotter AF, Sangiorgi F, van Konijnenberg-van Cittert H, de Leeuw JW, Matthiessen J, Backman J, Moran K. 2006. The Expedition 302 Scientists,. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. Nature 441, 606-609

Brunel T, Boucher J. 2007. Long-term trends in fish recruitment in the north-east Atlantic related to climate change. Fisheries Oceanography 16, 336– 349.

Carpenter KE, Abrar M, Aeby G, Aronson RB, Banks S, Bruckner A, Chiriboga A, Cortes J, Delbeek JC, DeVantier L, Edgar GJ, Edwards AJ, Fenner D, Guzman HM, Hoeksema BW, Hodgson G, Johan O, Licuanan WY, Livingstone SR, Lovell ER, Moore JA, Obura DO, Ochavillo D, Polidoro BA, Precht WF, Quibilan MC, Reboton C, Richards ZT, Rogers AD, Sanciangco J, Sheppard A, Sheppard C, Smith J, Stuart S, Turak E, Veron JEN, Wallace C, Weil E, Wood E. 2008. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321, 560– 563.

Clarke A, Brierley AS, Harris CM, Lubin D, Smith RC. 2008. Polar and ice-edge marine systems. In N.V.C. Polunin, Ed. Aquatic Ecosystems: Trends and Global Prospects, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 319–333.

Clarke A. 1993. Temperature and extinction in the sea – a physiologists view. Paleobiology 19, 499–518.

Cozza R, Chiappetta A, Petrarulo M, Salimonti A, Rende F, Bitonti MB, Innocenti AM. 2004. Cytophysiological features of Posidonia oceanica as putative markers of environmental conditions, Chemistry and Ecology 20 (3), 215–223.

Crowley TJ, Hyde WT. 2008. Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability. Nature 456, 226– 230.

Cullen JJ, Boyd PW. 2008. Predicting and verifying the intended and unintended consequences of large-scale ocean iron fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364, 295–301.

Dale B, Edwards M, Reid PC. 2006. Climate Change and Harmful Algae Blooms. In Granéli E, Turner JT. Ed.Ecological Studies 189. Edited by Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 367-378.

Daskalov GM, Grishin AN, Rodionov S, Mihneva V. 2007. Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 104, 10518– 10523.

de la Mare WK. 1997. Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea-ice extent from whaling records. Nature 389, 57–60.

Death G, Lough JM, Fabricius KE. 2009. Declining Coral Calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323, 116–119.

Denman KL. 2008. Climate change, ocean processes and ocean iron fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364, 219–225.

DeYoung B, Barange M, Beaugrand G, Harris R, Perry RI, Scheffer M, Werner F. 2008. Regime shifts in marine ecosystems: detection, prediction and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, 402–409.

Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R. 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321, 926–929.

Edwards M, Johns DG, Leterme SC, Svendsen E, Richardson AJ. 2006. Regional climate change and harmful algal blooms in the northeast Atlantic. Limnology and Oceanography 51 (2), 820-829.

Epstein PR. 2001. Climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection 3, 747-754.

Erdner D, Dyble J, Parsons ML, Stevens RC, Hubbard KA, Wrabel ML, Moore SK, Lefebvre KA, Anderson DM, Bienfang P, Bidigare RR, Parker MS, Moeller P, Brand LE, Trainer VL. 2008. Centers for Oceans and Human Health: a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms. Environmental Health 7(Suppl 2):s2 p 1-17.

Erickson GM, Nishitani L. 1985 The Possible Relationship of El Niсo/Southern Oscillation Events to Interannual Variation In Gonyaulax Populations as Shown by Records of Shellfish Toxicity. In Wooster WS, Fluharty DL, Ed. El Niсo North: Niсo Effects in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean Seattle: Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington, 283-290.

Ferreyra GA, Mostajir B, Schloss IR, Chatila K, Ferrario ME, Sargian P, Roy S, Prod’homme J, Demers S. 2006. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on the structure and function of lower trophic levels of the marine planktonic food web. Photochemistry and Photobiology 82, 887–897.

Garcia HE, Boyer TP, Levitus S, Locarnini RA, Antonov J. 2005. On the variability of dissolved oxygen and apparent oxygen utilization content for the upper world ocean: 1955 to 1998. Geophysical Research Letters 32, (5). doi:10.1029/2004gl021745.

Gell FR, Roberts CM. 2003. Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 448–455.

Greene CH, Pershing AJ. 2004. Climate and the conservation biology of North Atlantic right whales: the right whale at the wrong time? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2, 29–34.

Hader DP, Kumar HD, Smithc RC, Worrestd RC. 2007. Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change, The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies, Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 6, 267– 285.

Hader DP. 2003. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on aquatic primary producers in Handbook of Photochemistry and Photobiology: Photobiology, USA: American Scientific Publishers, California, vol. 4, p. 329–352.

Hader DP. 2003. UV-B impact on the life of aquatic plants in Modern Trends in Applied Aquatic Ecology, Kluwer Acadameic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p. 149–172.

Hallegraeff GM. 1993. A review of harmful algae blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32(2), 79-99.

Hall-Spencer JM, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Martin S, Ransome E, Fine M, Turner SM, Rowley SJ, Tedesco D, and Buia MC. 2008. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454, 96–99.

Hansen J, Sato M, Ruedy R, Kharecha P, Lacis A, Miller R, Nazarenko L, Lo K, Schmidt GA, Russell G, Aleinov I, Bauer S, Baum E, Cairns B, Canuto V, Chandler M, Cheng Y, Cohen A, Del Genio A, Faluvegi G, Fleming E, Friend A, Hall T, Jackman C, Jonas J, Kelley M, Kiang NY, Koch D, Labow G, Lerner J, Menon S, Novakov T, Oinas V, Perlwitz Ja, Perlwitz Ju, Rind D, Romanou A, Schmunk R, Shindell D, Stone R, Sun S, Streets D, Tausnev N, Thresher D, Unger N, Yao M, Zhang S. 2007. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 2287-2312.

Hayes ML, Bonaventura J, Mitchell TP, Prospero JM, Shinn EA, Van Dolah F, Barber RT. 2001. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked? Hydrobiologia, 460, 213-220.

HEED. 1998. Health Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems: Emerging Diseases As Indicators Of Change. Health of the Oceans from Labrador to Venezuela. Year of the Ocean Special Report. NOAAOGP and NASA Grant number NA56GP 0623. Edited by: Epstein PR, Sherman BH, Siegfried ES, Langston A, Prasad S, Mckay B. Boston: The Center for Conservation Medicine and CHGE Harvard Medical School, 85.

Helbling EW, Zagarese HE. 2003. UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 329-356.

Hester KC, Peltzer ET, Kirkwood, WJ, Brewer PG. 2008. Unanticipated consequences of ocean acidification: a noisier ocean at lower pH. Geophysical Research Letters 35, 19601.

Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell, CD, Sale PF, Edwards AJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bradbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME. 2007. Coral Reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318, 1737–1742.

Huesermann MH. 2008. Ocean fertilization and other climate change mitigation strategies: an overview. Marine Ecology Progress Series 364, 243– 250.

IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK and Reisinger A, eds. Geneva: IPCC, p. 104.

IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, and Miller HL, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 996.

IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. In Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 1-18..

IPCC. 2007. Summary for Policymakers: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 18.

Ito J. 1964. Food and feeding habit of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) in their oceanic life. Bulletin of Hokkaido Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 29, 85–97.

Jackson JBC. 2008. Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 105, 11458–11465.

Johnson MA, Macaulay MC, Biggs DC. 1984. Respiration and excretion within a mass aggregation of Euphausia superba – implications for krill distribution. Journal of Crustacean Biology 4, 174– 184.

Joos F, Spahni R. 2008. Rates of change in natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing over the past 20,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 105, 1425– 1430.

Kaeriyama M, Nakamura M, Edpalina R, Bower JR, Yamaguchi, H, Walker RV, Myers KW. 2004. Change in feeding ecology and trophic dynamics of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the central Gulf of Alaska in relation to climate events. Fisheries Oceanography 13 (3), 197–207.

Kaeriyama M. 1986. Ecological study on early life the chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum). Scientific Reports of the Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery 40, 31–92.

Kanno Y, Hamai I. 1971. Food of salmonid fish in the Bering Sea in summer of 1966. Bull. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 22, 107–128.

Kintisch E. 2008. Climate change: rules for ocean fertilization could repel companies. Science 322, 835.

Kirby R. 1997. Environmental consequences of tidal power in a hypertidal muddy regime: the Severn estuary (UK). La Houille Blanche, revue internationale de l ‘eau 52, 3, 66–78.

Koschinski S, Culik BM, Henriksen OD, Tregenza N, Ellis G, Jansen C, Kathe G. 2003. Behavioural reactions of free-ranging porpoises and seals to the noise of a simulated 2 MW windpower generator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 265, 263– 273.

Laws EA. 2007. Climate Change, Oceans, and Human Health. In Ocean Yearbook 21 Edited by: Chircop A, Coffen-Smout S, McConnell M. Bridge Street Books, 159-175.

Leaper R, Cooke J, Trathan P, Reid K, Rowntree V, Payne R. 2006. Global climate drives southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) population dynamics. Biology Letters 2, 289–292.

Leavitt PR, Cumming BF, Smol JP, Reasoner M, Pienitz R, Hodgson DA. 2003. Climatic control of ultraviolet radiation effects on lakes, Limnology and Oceanography, 48, 2062–2069.

LeBrasseur RJ. 1966. Stomach contents of salmon and steelhead trout in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 23, 85–100.

LeBrasseur RJ. 1972. Utilization of herbivore zooplankton by maturing salmon. In: Biological Oceanography of the Northern North Pacific Ocean. A.Y. Takenouti (ed.) Tokyo: Idemitsu Shoten, p. 581– 588.

Lenton TM, Held H, Kriegler E, Hall JW, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S, Schellnhuber HJ. 2008. Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 1786–1793.

Licht LE. 2003. Shedding light on ultraviolet radiation and amphibian embryos. Bioscience 53, 551–561.

Mann ME, Zhang Z, Hughes, MK, Bradley RS, Miller SK, Rutherford S, Ni F. 2008. Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 13252–13257.

Manzer JI. 1968. Food of the Pacific salmon and steelhead trout in the north-eastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25:1085–1089.

McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. 2006. Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet 367, 859-869.

Meure CM, Etheridge D, Trudinger C, Steele P, Langenfelds R, van Ommen T, Smith A, Elkins J. 2006. Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N2O ice core records extended to 2000 years BP. Geophysical Resarch Letters 33, L14810.

Moore SK, Trainer V, Mantua N, Parker M, Laws E, Backer L, Fleming L. 2008. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health, Environmental Health 7 (Suppl 2):S4 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-7-S2-S4.

Nishiyama T. 1970. Tentative estimation of daily ration of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay prior to ascending migration. Bulletin of the faculty of fisheries Hokkaido university 20, 265– 276.

Nishiyama T. 1974. Energy requirement of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon in the central Bering Sea and Bristol Bay. In: Oceanography of the Bering Sea with Emphasis on Renewable Resources, International Symposium for Bering Sea Study, Hakodate, Japan, 1972. Occasional Publ. 2, Inst. Mar. Sci. D.W. Hood & E.J. Kelley (eds) Fairbanks, AK: Univ. Alaska, p. 321– 343.

Nishiyama T. 1977. Food-energy requirements of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) during the last marine life stage. Res. Inst. N. Pac. Fish. Special vol, 289–320.

Pala C. 2009. Conservation: scientists laud Bush’s blue legacy but want more. Science 323, 192–193.

Patz  JA,  Olson  SH,  Gray  AL.  2006.  Climate change, oceans, and human health. Oceanography 19 (2), 52-61.

Pearcy WG, Brodeur RD, Shenker J, Smoker W, Endo Y. 1988. Food habits of Pacific salmon and steelhead trout, midwater trawl catches, and oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of Alaska, 1980–1985. Bulletin of the Ocean Research Institute 26, 29–78.

Pearson PN, Palmer MR. 2000. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406, 695–699.

Peters SE. 2008. Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature 454, 626–U638.

Poloczanska ES, Hawkins, SJ, Southward AJ, Burrows MT. 2008. Modelling the response of populations of competing species to climate chage. Ecology 89, 3138–3149.

Portner HO, Langenbuch M, Michaelidis B. 2005. Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: From Earth history to global change. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 110, 15.

Rahmstorf S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sealevel rise. Science 315, 368–370.

Ramanathan V, Feng Y. 2008. On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: Formidable challenges ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 14245–14250.

Reid PC, Johns DG, Edwards M, Starr M, Poulin M, Snoeijs P. 2007. A biological consequence of reducing Arctic ice cover: arrival of the Pacific diatom Neodenticula seminae in the North Atlantic for the first time in 800,000 years. Global Change Biology 13, 1910–1921.

Romm J. 2008. Cleaning up on carbon. Nature Reports Climate Change 2, 85–8

Roy S, Mohovic B, Gianesella SMF, Schloss I, Ferrario M, Demers S. 2006. Effects of enhanced UV-B on pigment-based phytoplankton biomass and composition of mesocosm-enclosed natural marine communities from three latitudes, Photochemistry and Photobiology 82, 909–922.

Schiermeier Q, Tollefson J, Scully T, Witze A, Morton O. 2008. Electricity without carbon. Nature 454, 816–823.

Schiermeier Q. 2004. Climate findings let fishermen off the hook. Nature 428,662-665.

Shimazaki K, Mishima S. 1969. On the diurnal change of the feeding activity of salmon in the Okhotsk Sea. Bulletin of the faculty of fisheries Hokkaido university 20, 82–93.

Sinha RP, Häder DP. 2002. UV-induced DNA damage and repair: A review, Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 1, 225–236.

Smayda  TJ.  1997.  Bloom  dynamics:  Physiology, behavior, trophic effects.Limnology and Oceanography 42 (5), 1132-1136.

Stabeno PJ, Bond NA, Kachel NB, Salo SA, Schumacher JD. 2001. On the temporal variability of the physical environment over the south-eastern Bering Sea. Fisheries Oceanography 10, 81–98.

Takeuchi I. 1972. Food animals collected from the stomachs of three salmonid fishes (Oncorhynchus) and their distribution in the natural environments in the northern North Pacific. Bulletin of the Hokkaido Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 38, 1–119.

The Royal Society. 2005. Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, p. 60.

Trainer VL, Eberhart B-TL, Wekell JC, Adams NG, Hanson L, Cox F, Dowell J. 2003. Paralytic shellfish toxins in Puget Sound, Washington State. Journal of shellfish research 22 (1), 213-223.

Van Der Kraak G, Pankhurst NW. 1997. Temperature effects on the reproductive performance of fish. In Global Warming: Implications for Freshwater and Marine Fish, (Wood, C.M. & McDonald, D.G., eds), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 61, 159-176.

Vaquer-Sunyer R, Duarte CM. 2008. Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 15452–15457.

Vincent W F, Rautio M, Pienitz R. 2006. Climate control of biological UV exposure in polar and alpine aquatic ecosystems in Environmental Challenges in Arctic-Alpine Regions, Ed. Orbaek JB, Kallenborn R and Tombre IM, Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 117– 157.

Wilson RW, Millero FJ, Taylor JR, Walsh PJ, Christensen V, Jennings S, Grosell M. 2009. Contribution of fish to the marine inorganic carbon cycle. Science 323, 359–362.

Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan, L, Thomas E, Billups K. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686– 693.

Zepp RG, Erickson III, DJ, Paul ND, Sulzberger B. 2007. Interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling, Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 6, 286-300.