The Livelihoods Vulnerability of Farmers in Upstream and Downstream Areas in Facing Natural Disasters in South Kalimantan, Indonesia
Apriyana Y. 2017 “Farmer adaptation strategy in paddy field affected by climate variability in monsoon regions,” Asian Journal of Agriculture 1(01). Available at:https://doi.org/10.13057/asianjagric/g010103.
Araro K, Legesse SA, Meshesha DT. 2020 “Climate Change and Variability Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia,” Earth Systems and Environment 4(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-019-00134-9.
Asfaw A. 2021. “Smallholder farmers’ livelihood vulnerability to climate change-induced hazards: agroecology-based comparative analysis in Northcentral Ethiopia (Woleka Sub-basin),” Heliyon, 7(4). Available at:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06761.
Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. 2020. “Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia,” Statistik Indonesia 2020, 1101001.
Bedeke S. 2019. “Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies by maize-dependent smallholders in Ethiopia,” NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 88, p 96–104. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2018.09.001.
BNPB. 2022. “Indeks Risiko Bencana Indonesia (IRBI) tahun 2021”. Available at: (Accessed: May 8, 2022). https://inarisk.bnpb.go.id/
BPS. 2022. “Banjar Regency in Figures 2022”. Available at: (Accessed: May 8, 2022). https://banjarkab.bps.go.id/
Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL. 2003. “Social vulnerability to environmental hazards,” Social Science Quarterly 84(2), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002.
Dhanya P, Ramachandran A, Palanivelu K. 2021. “Understanding the Local Perception, Adaptation to Climate Change and Resilience Planning Among the Farmers of Semi-Arid Tracks of South India,” Agricultural Research [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-021-00560-0.
DHS (Demographic Health Survey). 2006 “Measure DHS: model questionnaire with commentary. Basic Documentation, Number 2.”
Dolan AH, Walker IJ. 2006 “Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks,” Journal of Coastal Research, 3(SI 39).
Esfandiari M. 2020. “Factors influencing the use of adaptation strategies to climate change in paddy lands of Kamfiruz, Iran,” Land Use Policy 95. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104628.
Esham M. Garforth C. 2013. “Climate change and agricultural adaptation in Sri Lanka: A review,” Climate and Development. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2012.762333.
Firdaus RBR. 2020. “Paddy, rice and food security in Malaysia: A review of climate change impacts,” Cogent Social Sciences. Cogent OA. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2020.1818373.
Gahatraj S, Jha RK. Singh OP. 2018 “Impacts of climate change on rice production and strategies for adaptation in Chitwan, Nepal,” Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1(1). Available at: https://doi.org/10.3126/janr.v1i1.22226.
Gravitiani E, Fitriana SN, Suryanto. 2018 “Community livelihood vulnerability level in northern and southern coastal area of Java, Indonesia,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. Institute of Physics Publishing. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/202/1/012050.
Hahn MB, Riederer AM, Foster SO. 2009. “The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change-A case study in Mozambique,” Global Environmental Change 19(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.002.
Herath G, Hasanov A, Park J. 2020 “Impact of climate change on paddy production in malaysia: Empirical analysis at the national and state level experience,” in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21248-3_48.
Herath HML, Thirumarpan K. 2017 “Climate Change Induced Adaptation Strategies by Paddy Farmers: Special Emphasis on Socio Economic Insights,” Journal of Agricultural Sciences 12(2), Available at: https://doi.org/10.4038/jas.v12i2.8230.
Instituto Nacionalde Estatistica M. (National I. of S.M). 2007 “Base de dados – Clima (Database – Climate).”
IPCC Working Group II. 2022. Climate Change 2022-Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability. Working Group II Contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In International Encyclopedia of Human Geography.
Jakariya M. 2020. “Assessing climate-induced agricultural vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh using machine learning techniques,” Science of the Total Environment 742, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140255.
Kim DH. 2021. “Paddy rice adaptation strategies to climate change: Transplanting date shift and BMP applications,” Agricultural Water Management 252, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.106926.
Kumar S, Sidana BK. 2017. “Enhancing Farmers’ Income through Climate Resilient Technologies,” Indian Journal of Economics and Development, 13(4), Available at: https://doi.org/10.5958/2322-0430.2017.00223.2.
Matano AS. 2018. “Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan,” climate links [Preprint].
Mehzabin S, Mondal MS. 2021. “Assessing impact of climate variability in southwest coastal bangladesh using livelihood vulnerability index,” Climate 9(7), Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9070107.
Mekonen AA, Berlie AB. 2021. “Rural households’ livelihood vulnerability to climate variability and extremes: a livelihood zone-based approach in the Northeastern Highlands of Ethiopia,” Ecological Processes 10(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-021-00313-5.
Nor Diana MI. 2019. “Assessing local vulnerability to climate change by using Livelihood Vulnerability Index: Case study in Pahang region, Malaysia,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012059.
Parker L. 2019. “Vulnerability of the agricultural sector to climate change: The development of a pan-tropical Climate Risk Vulnerability Assessment to inform sub-national decision making,” PLoS ONE, 14(3), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213641.
Poudel PR, Joshi NR, Pokhrel S. 2018. “Effect of climate change in paddy production and adaptation strategies in Tharu communities of Dang district, Nepal,” Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 1(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.3126/janr.v1i1.22223.
Quiroga S. 2020. “Framing vulnerability and coffee farmers’ behaviour in the context of climate change adaptation in Nicaragua,” World Development 126, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104733.
Sajjad M, Chan JCL. 2019. “Risk assessment for the sustainability of coastal communities: A preliminary study,” Science of the Total Environment, 67(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.326.
Sertse SF. 2021. “Farm households’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change risks and their determinants: Evidence from Raya Azebo district, Ethiopia,” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 60, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102255.
Suantapura SR. 2016. “Perception, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies of Irrigated Paddy Farmer Community to Face Climate Change,” Mimbar: Jurnal Sosial dan Pembangunan 32(1).
Sullivan C, Meigh JR, Fediw T. 2002. “Derivation and Testing of the Water Poverty Index Phase 1,” Center for Ecology and Hydrology CEH. Natural 1(May).
Tessema I, Simane B. 2019. “Vulnerability analysis of smallholder farmers to climate variability and change: an agro-ecological system-based approach in the Fincha’a sub-basin of the upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia,” Ecological Processes 8(1), Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0159-7.
UNDP. 2019. “UNDP Human Development Report 2019. ” United Nations Development Program.
UNFCCC. 2020. “Annual Report 2020”. Available at: (Accessed: May 8, 2022). https://unfccc.int/annualreport
Van de Vuurst P, Escobar LE. 2020 “Corrigendum: Perspective: Climate Change and the Relocation of Indonesia’s Capital to Borneo (Frontiers in Earth Science 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00005
Wanigasundera WADP, Alahakoon PCB. 2014. “Perceptions of climate change and adaptation of climate-smart technology by the paddy farmers : A case study of Kandy District in Sri Lanka,” International Journal of Social, Human Science and Engineering 8(4).
Williamsburg. 2004. “Household natural hazards preparedness questionnaire. Peninsula Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee, Williamsburg, VA.”
World Bank. 1997. “Survey of living conditions: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Household Questionnaire, December 1997–March 1998.”
Yamane T. 1967. “Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed.”, New York: Harper and Row. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development.