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The pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) gene frequency and its impact on the enzyme activity in house fly, Muscadomestica L. from Faisalabad, Pakistan

Research Paper | November 1, 2019

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Bushra Riaz, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Kausar Malik, Aftab Ahmad, Farhat Jabeen, Nazia Khalil, Atta Ullah, Muhammad Zulhussnain, KanwalRanian, Samina Qamar

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Int. J. Biosci.15( 5), 195-204, November 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.5.195-204


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House fly, Muscadomesticaact as a vector of various pathogens viz. virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and nematodes; and is responsible for transmitting wide variety of human and veterinary diseases. It is one of the major concerns due to its high fecundity and hence, poses a serious concern to control. Although, different groups of insecticides are being used for its control; however, resistance has been reported against pyrethroids. The current study was conducted to monitor the frequency of pyrethroid resistance gene kdr in house fly populations of District Faisalabad. The molecular and biochemical assays were performed on fly samples from eleven different sites. DNA was amplified for knock down resistance genethrough PASA (PCR Amplification of Specific Alleles) method by using outer primers kdr1 and kdr4, and the inner primers kdr2 and kdr3 which specifically amplify the domain-II of kdrgene. Two populations were found homozygous susceptible (+/+; 18%); whereas three populations were found genetically homozygous resistant (-/-; 27%) which are insensitive to pyrethroid insecticides. Similarly, six populations were found heterozygous (+/-; 55%) for kdr suggesting thereby that at least 1/4th homozygous resistant (-/-) house fly populations with insensitivity to pyrethroids would be produced in future keeping in view the Mendelian ratio. Biochemical assay showed that homozygous resistant and heterozygous populations had increased activity of Acetylcholinestarse (AChE), α-Carboxylesterase (α-Carboxyl), β-Carboxylesterase (β-Carboxyl), Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP) and Acidic Phosphatase (ACP) enzymes. The current results, strongly suggests that management program for pyrethoidsinsecticides resistance should be implementedin future countrywide.


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The pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) gene frequency and its impact on the enzyme activity in house fly, Muscadomestica L. from Faisalabad, Pakistan

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