Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | April 1, 2015

VIEWS 1
| Download 3

The role of incentive mechanisms in wildlife management: A case study of Moyowosi Game Reserve and Serengeti National park, Tanzania

Batro Nakoli Ngilangwa

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(4), 177-196, April 2015

Certification:

JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This study aims to determine the efforts devoted in managing wildlife in national parks and game reserves in Tanzania. Specifically, the study focused on evaluating the population and poaching trends of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in these protected areas that follow under two different management regimes. Furthermore the study identified sources of market failure and suggested economic incentive mechanisms that will improve conservation status of wildlife in Tanzania. Data from secondary sources were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in comparing the rate of population increases and poaching per annum for the two protected areas. The results showed that Serengeti National park has a significant higher rate of population increase of 15% than Moyowosi game reserve that has 9% only. Furthermore the study revealed that, Moyowosi game reserve has a significant high rate of poaching than Serengeti National park. Finally, due to having two different bodies that manage these protected areas, government market failure was identified in Moyowosi game reserve than Serengeti national park. Therefore the study suggests some incentives mechanisms that will help to improve the conservation status of African elephants in Moyowosi game reserve. These are decentralizing management of wildlife revenues to the specific game reserve that will increase benefit sharing schemes, review of wildlife hunting policy to make sure that concession hunting blocks are only given to the companies that abide with all three main aspects of being actively involved in anti poaching, community development, wildlife research and monitoring.

VIEWS 1

Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

The role of incentive mechanisms in wildlife management: A case study of Moyowosi Game Reserve and Serengeti National park, Tanzania

Andrew ML, Ronald VC. 2009. The International Ban on Ivory Sales and its Effects on Elephant Poaching in Africa. The British Journal of Criminology 49(4), 451.

Archie EA, Moss CJ, Alberts SC. 2006. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society 273(1586), 513-522.

Barnes, RFW. 1983. Effects of Elephant Browsing on Woodlands in a Tanzanian National Park: Measurements, Models and Management. Journal of Applied Ecology 20(2), 521-539.

Barnes JI, Macgregor J, Chris WL. 2002. Economic Efficiency and Incentives for Change within Namibia’s Community Wildlife Use Initiatives. World Development 30(4), 667-681.

Basson M, Beddington JR, May RM. 1991. An assessment of the maximum sustainable yield of ivory from African elephant populations. Mathematical biosciences 104(1), 73-95.

Blanc JJ, Barnes RFW, Dublin HT, Thouless CR, Douglas – Hamilton I, Hart JA. 2007. African Elephant Status Report 2007. An update from the African Elephant Database. Occasional paper series of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, (33). IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 276.

Blanc JJ, Thouless CR, Hart JA. 2003, African Elephant Status Report 2002. An update from the African Elephant Database. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.

Blanc JJ, Barnes RFW, Craig GC, Douglas-Hamilton I, Dublin HT, Hart JA, Thouless CR. 2005. Changes in Elephants numbers in major savannah populations in the Eastern and Southern Africa. Pachyderm 38(19- 28). http//iucn.org/afesg/pachy/pachy38.html

Boardman AE. 2011. Cost-benefit analysis: concepts and practice, Prentice Hall, Boston.

Bonnie J, McCay. 1995a. Common and Private Concerns. In Advances in the Human Ecology 4(1), 89- 116.

Bromley DW. 1999. Sustaining development: environmental resources in developing countries, E. Elger Pub, Northampton, MA.

Brown GM. 2000. Renewable Natural Resource Management and Use without Markets. Journal of Economic Literature 38 (4), 875-914.

Chase MJ. 2007. Home ranges, trans boundary movements and harvest of elephants in northern Botswana and factors affecting elephant distribution and abundance in the lower Kwando river basin. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing

CITIES. 2012. Export Quotas. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild Fauna and Flora. Available from on February 2013 http://cites.org/common/quotas/2012/Export qUOTA2012.PDF.viewed

Courouble M, Hursh F, Milliken T. 2003. More Ivory Than Elephants: Domestic Ivory Markets in Three West African Countries. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC International, TRAFFIC Online Report Series, TRAFFIC East/ Southern. Africa 1(8).

Cumming DHM, Du Toit RF Stuart SN. 1990. African Elephants and Rhino status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC African Elephants and Rhino specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland 1(1), 70

Dahlman CJ. 1979. The Problem of Externality. Journal of Law and Economics 22(1), 141-162.

DANIDA. 1989. Environmental Profile of Tanzania. Copenhagen: Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1(1).

Dobson AP, Poole JH. 1992. Ivory: Why the Ban Must Stay. Conservation Biology 6(1), 149-151.

Douglas- Hamilton I. 2000. Ivory trading: the East African view. Swara, 22(4), 27

Douglas-Hamilton I. 1987. African elephants: Population trends and their causes. Oryx 21(1), 11-24.

Douglas-Hamilton I. 1972. On the Ecology & Behaviour of the African Elephant. DPhil thesis, University of Oxford.

Dublin HT, Sinclair ARE, McGlade J. 1990. Elephants and Fire as Causes of Multiple Stable States in the Serengeti-Mara Woodlands. Journal of Animal Ecology 59(3), 1147-1164.

Dublin HT, Douglas-Hamilton I. 1987. Status and trends of elephants in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem. African Journal of Ecology 25(1), 19-33.

Dudley JP. 1999. Foraging ecology and conservation biology of African elephants. Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on elephant-woody plant interactions in African landscapes, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.

Elizabeth FP, Lovell SJ, Douglas ML. 2013. Creating Direct Incentives for Wildlife Conservation in Community-Based Natural Resource Management Programs in Botswana. The Journal of Development Studies 49(3), 315.

Ferreira SM, Van Aarde RJ. 2008. A Rapid Method to Estimate Population Variables for African Elephants. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3), 822-829.

Field BC. 2005. Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth. Land Economics 81(4), 496-502.

Fischer C, Muchapondwa E, Sterner T. 2011. A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management under CAMPFIRE. Environmental and Resource Economics 48(2), 303-319.

Frost PGH, Bond I. 2008. The CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe: Payments for wildlife services. Ecological Economics 65(4), 776-787.

Galanti V, Preatoni D, Martinoli A, Wauters LA, Tosi G. 2006. Space and habitat use of the African elephant in the Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, Tanzania. Implications for conservation. Mammalian Biology 7(2), 99-114.

Grainger M, Aarde R, Whyte I. 2005. Landscape heterogeneity and the use of space by elephants in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43(4), 369-369.

GTZ Wildlife Programme in Tanzania. 2000. Kagera, Kigoma Game Reserve Rehabilitation project (EDF). Dar es Salaam: GTZ

Hall-Martin. 1992. Distribution and status of the African elephant Loxodonta africana in South Africa, 1652-1992. Koedoe. African Protected Area Conservation and Science 35 (1), 65-88.

Hardin G. 2009. The Tragedy of the Commons. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research 1(3), 243-253.

Hausser Y, Weber H, Meyer B. 2009. Bees, farmers, tourists and hunters: conflict dynamics around Western Tanzania protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 18(10), 2679-2703.

Hoare RE. 2003. Fencing and other barriers against problem elephants. Technical Brief Series. Nairobi: IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group.

Hoare RE. 2000. African elephants & Human in conflicts: the outlook for co existence. Oryx 34(3), 34- 38.

Ihwagi FW, Vollrath F, Chira RM, Douglas-Hamilton I, Kironchi G. 2010. The impact of elephants, loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in samburu and buffalo springs national reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48(1), 87-87.

IUCN Species Survival Commission, No.  33. IUCN/SSC. African Elephants specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 276.

Jackson TP, Erasmus DG. 2005. Assessment of seasonal home range use by elephants across Southern Africa’s seven elephants clusters. Report. Conservation Ecology Research unit, University of Pretoria

Jachmann H, Berry, PSM, IMAE H. 1995, Tusklessness in African elephants: a future trend. African Journal of Ecology 33(3), 230-235.

John JRM, Nahonyo CL, Lee WS, Msuya CA. 2013. Observations on nesting of shoebill Balaeniceps rex and wattled crane Bugeranus carunculatus in Malagarasi wetlands, western Tanzani. African Journal of Ecology 51(1), 184-187.

Kantai P. 2000. Elephants & Ivory: the debate continues. Swara 22(4), 22- 30

Kangwana KF. 1996. Studying elephants. AWF Technical Handbook Series, 7.

Kikoti A. 2009. PhD thesis. Knowledge in African elephants. Science 292 (1), 491- 494. http://www.awf.org/contents/solution/detail/3705

Kortland A. 1984. Vegetation research and the bulldozer herbivores of tropic Africa. In Tropical rain forest. The Leeds symposium (Eds. A. C. Chadwick & S.L. Sutton). Leeds philosophical and literary Society Ltd. Leeds, UK 1(1), 205 – 226.

Kurji F. 1977. Human Population Densities and their changes around the major conservation areas of Tanzania. BRULUP Research Report 51(1).

Lamprey HF, Glover PE, Turner MIM, Bell RHV. 1967. Invasion of the Serengeti National Park by elephants. African Journal of Ecology 5(1), 151-166.

Laws RM. 1970. Elephants and habitats in north Bunyoro, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 8(1), 163-180

Leader-Williams N. 1996. Serengeti II: Dynamics, management, and conservation of an ecosystem. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11(4), 184-184.

Maduhu NF. 1999. Reversed Migration Trends in the Kondoa eroded area’: Lessons for Future Conservation Activities in the HADO Project Areas. Ossrea Research Reports. Addis Ababa.

Malima C, Hoare RE, Blanc JJ. 2005. Systematic recording of human – elephant conflicts. A case study in South – East Tanzania. Pachyderm 38(1), 29 –38

Martin RB. 2005.Trans boundary Species Project, background study. Elephants. Ministry of Environment & Tourism and the Namibian Nature Foundation. Namibia.

McComb K, Moss C, Durant SM, Baker L, Sayialel S. 2001. Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5516), 491-494.

McNeley JA, Ness G. 1996. People, Parks and Biodiversity: Issues in Population – Environment Dynamics: In. Dompka 1(1).

McPherson MA, Nieswiadomy. 2000. African elephants: the effects of property righty and political stability. Contemporary Economic Policy 18(1), 14-26.

Meldrum A. 1989. Zimbabwe’s Campfire Program. Africa Report 34(6), 48.

Michael Anderson T, Metzger KL, McNaughton SJ. 2007. Multi‐scale analysis of plant species richness in Serengeti grasslands. Journal of Biogeography 34(2), 313-323

Michael J, Sara JS, Mira I. 2004. Markets for biodiversity services: Potential roles and challenges. Environment 46(6), 32.

Microsoft Office for Mac. 2011. Microsoft Office Milner-Gulland EJ, Mace R. 1991.The impact of the ivory trade on the African elephant Loxodonta africana population as assessed by data from the trade. Biological Conservation 55(2), 215-229.

Kent Messer. 2000. The poacher’s dilemma: The economics of poaching and enforcement. Endangered Species Update 17(3), 50-60

Milliken T, Pole A, Huongo A. 2006. No Peace for Elephants. Unregulated Domestic Ivory Market in Angola and Mozambique. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC International, TRAFFIC East/ Southern Africa.

Milner-Gulland EJ, Leader-Williams N. 1992. A Model of Incentives for the Illegal Exploitation of Black Rhinos and Elephants: Poaching Pays in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Applied Ecology 29(2), 388-401.

Mpanduji DG, East M, Hofer H. 2009. Analysis of habitat use by and preference of elephants in the Selous-Niassa wildlife corridor, southern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 47(2), 257-257.

MNRT. 2007. The wildlife Policy of Tanzania. Reviewed in March 2007

Foley CAH, Faust LJ. 2010. Rapid population growth in an elephant population recovering from poaching in Tarangire national park, Tanzania. Oryx 44(2), 205-212.

Novellie P, Hall M, Joubert D. 1991. The problem of maintaining large herbivores in small conservation areas. Deterioration of grasveld in the Addo Elephant National Park South (Addo, South Africa). Koedoe 34(1), 41 – 50.

Ntumi CP, Ferreira SM, Van Aarde RJ. 2009. A review of historical trends in the distribution and abundance of elephants Loxodonta africana in Mozambique. Oryx 43(4), 568-579.

Ostrom E. 2003. How Types of Goods and Property Rights Jointly Affect Collective Action. Journal of Theoretical Politics 15(3), 239-270.

Parker ISC, Graham AD. 1989. Elephant decline: downward trends in African elephant distribution and numbers (part ii). International Journal of Environmental Studies 35(1-2), 13-26.

Platais GH. 1998. Incentives for sustainable watershed management: An integrated analysis for El Salvador. ProQuest, and UMI Dissertations Publishing.

PRB. 2012. 2012 World Population Data Sheet: Population Reference Bureau. Washington, DC. Also available through on March, 2013 http://www.prb.org/pdf12/2012-population-data-sheeteng.pdf.viewed

Pringle RM. 2008. Elephants as Agents of Habitat Creation for Small Vertebrates at the Patch Scale. Ecology 89(1), 26-33.

Robinson J. 2012. Market Failure Impacting on the Environment, Power Point Slides, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Roth HH, Douglas-Hamilton I. 1991. Distribution and status of elephants in West Africa. Mammalia 55(4), 489-528.

Said MY, Chunge RN, Craig GC, Thouless CR, Barnes RFW, Dublin HT. 1995. African Elephant Database’, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Shishira EK, Yanda PZ. 1998. An assessment and Mapping of Forest Resources in Parts of Tabora Region, Tanzania, using Aerial photography, Research Report submitted to the division of Forestry. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dare es Salaam.

Stephenson PJ, Ntiamoa-Baidu Y. 2010. Conservation planning for a widespread, threatened species: WWF and the African elephant Loxodonta Africana. Oryx 44(2), 194-204.

Steven RT. 2012. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies. The Qualitative Report 17(1), 254.

Strier K. 1990. My Serengeti Years: The Memories of an African Game Warden, by Myles Turner (Book Review).

Sukumar R. 2003. The living elephants evolutionary ecology, behaviour and conservation. Oxford. University press.

Sweeney RJ, Tollison RD, Willett TD. 1974. Market Failure, the Common-Pool Problem, and Ocean Resource Exploitation. The Journal of Law and Economics 17 (1), 179-192.

Tanzania Wildlife Research Institutes. 2007. Country wide counts of African elephants, August – November 2006. Arusha. TAWIRI.

Tanzania Wildlife Research Institutes. 2010. Country wide counts of African elephants, August – November 2009. Arusha. TAWIRI

Tanzania Wildlife Conservation Monitoring. 1997. Wildlife survey: Serengeti National Park, dry season, November 1996. Arusha. TWCM.

Tanzania Wildlife Conservation Monitoring. 1995. Aerial survey of the Selous Game Reserve, Mikumi National Park and surrounding areas: dry season 1994. Arusha: TWCM/FZS. .

Thouless CR. 1995. Long distance movements of elephants in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 33(4), 321-334.

Thouless CR. 1994. Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya. Oryx 28 (2), 119-127.

Tsai MH, McFadden DW. 2012. The tragedy of the commons. Surgery 15(3), 490-491.

UNEP. 2008. Fact sheet: Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania.

UNEP/GEMS. 1988. The African Elephants. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi Kenya.

United Nations. 1993. Population, Environment and Development in Tanzania, New York: United Nations Department of Economics & Social Development, and Demographic Training Unit, University of Dar es Salaam. (URT- 89- PO7).

United Republic of Tanzania. 2013. National REDD+ Strategy:Vice president’s office, government printer, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

United Republic of Tanzania. 1998. National Wildlife Policy, Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism, Government Printers, Dar es Salaam.

Vance EA, Archie EA, Moss CJ. 2009. Social networks in African elephants, Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 15(4), 273-293.

Walker C. 1992. New elephants populations on private land. The Rhino & Elephant 6(2), 24-26.

Waltert M, Meyer B, Kiffner C. 2009. Habitat availability, hunting or poaching: What affects distribution and density of large mammals in western Tanzanian woodlands. African Journal of Ecology 47(4), 737-737.

Western D. 1989. The ecological role of elephants in Africa. Pachyderm 12(1), 42—48.

Wittemyer G. 2005. The socio-ecology of the African elephant (loxodonta africana). ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing).

Wittemyer G, Douglas-Hamilton I, Getz WM. 2005.The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures. Animal Behavior 69(6), 1357-1371.

Whitehouse AM. 2002. Tusklessness in the elephant population of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Journal of Zoology 257(2), 249-254.

Zerbe RO, McCurdy HE. 1999. The Failure of Market Failure. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 18(4), 558-57.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background