Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | June 1, 2015

VIEWS 1
| Download 3

The simulation of dispersion and distribution of pollutants of flaring operation in refiners of South Pars through AERMOD

Maryam Bigharaz, Ziaeddin Almassi, Mahnaz Nasr Abadi

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(6), 573-588, June 2015

Certification:

JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

One of the most significant environmental problems of oil, gas and petrochemical industries is the disposal of waste hydrocarbon gases in industrial complexes and the most common methods of burning gases is flaring. The flares constitute the main way of wasting energy, loss of economic resources, and emissions of greenhouse gases. It is the underlying factor of global warming and exerts disruptive effects upon the health of humans and other animate entities. Iran is the third country of the world and the first country in the Middle East in regard to emission of flare pollutants. It produces almost 11 percent of the ignited gas in the world. Now, ten refining phases of South Pars region are operating and 28 low-, middle-, and high-pressures flares are burning associated gases. In the present study, the dispersion of air pollutants of flaring operation is simulated through AERMOD Software. The results show that in normal conditions, benzene, H2S, and SO2 are produced more than the normal and standard level so that the highest dispersion concentration of benzene is associated with low-pressure flares of phase 2 and 3, highest dispersion concentration of H2S is associated with medium-pressure flares of phase 4 and 5, and the highest dispersion concentration of SO2 is associated with high- and low-pressure flares. These gases are dispersed toward downstream of the resources. In the end, some solutions are suggested for reduction of emission of these pollutants.

VIEWS 1

Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

The simulation of dispersion and distribution of pollutants of flaring operation in refiners of South Pars through AERMOD

Abbaspoor M. 2012. Air pollution modelling, Department of Sharif University Iran (1) 324-326.

Abdollahi M, Haghighi M, Fatehifar E, Barial Nikoi M. 2009. Simulation of performance of flares in conversion of H2S and VOCs, Specialized Conference of Oil, Gas and Environment 1-8.

Andalib Moghadam SH. 2007. The environmental consequences of application of flares and burning gases, First Expert Conference of Environmental Engineering, Tehran University 1653-1660.

Chavosh Bash MM, Derafshi S, Radman S. 2009. Possibility of recovery system for transmitted gases to flare of Tabriz petrochemical units and reduction of flaring operation through CDM mechanism, Portals of Pars Oil and Gas Company /910502-5 1-10.

Cimorelli AJ, Venkatram SGA, Weil JC, Paine RJ, Wilson RB, Lee RF, Peters WD, Brode RW. 2008. AERMOD: A dispersion model for industrial source applications. Part I: General model formulation and boundary layer characterization, J. Appl. Meteorol 44, 682–693.

Farakesh M. 2011. The wealth that is burnt, Educational-Scientific Journal of Safir-e-Omid, Sepanir Oil and Gas Company 1, 43-49.

Ghadianloo F,  Ghanbarnejad  B,  Viraste  M. 2012. Flare, Andishe Sara Press, Tehran 1, 233-239.

Ghasemiah A, Rostami S, Mohammadi Rad R, Hamledar O. 2012. The study of the reduction of ignition of recoverable gases in Iran, Moneco Iran Engineering Consultation Company, Eighth National Conference of Energy, Tehran 1-8.

Gohar Rokhi M, Mosavi SH. 2014. Simulation of flare grid of an industrial unit through Aspen Flare Net Software to determine the waste of energy and pollution of continuous flaring process, First Specialized Conference and Show of Oil, Tehran (April, 2014) 1-7.

Holmes NS, Morawska L. 2006. A review of dispersion modeling and its application to the dispersion of particles: An overview of different dispersion models available, Atmospheric Environment 40(2006), 5902-5928.

Information and Annual Statistics of Environment Unit of South Pars Refinery Complex. 2014. [www.SPGC.ir; accessed in March 10, 2014].

IPCC. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by Working Group, Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radioactive Forcing.

Johnson MR, Kostiuk LW, Spangelo JL. 2001. A characterization of solution gas flaring in Alberta. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 51(8), 1167-1177.

Kesarkar AP, Dalvi M, Kaginalkar A, Ojha A. 2007. Coupling of the weather research and forecasting model with AERMOD for pollutant dispersion modeling: A case study for PM10 dispersion over Pune, India Atmos. Environ 41, 1976–1988.

Khoshe-gir M, Sedaqat N, Bodaqpur S. 2013. Model and way of distribution and transfer of output pollutants of the flare, First National Conference of Environmental Protection and Planning 1-10.

Morra P, Lisi R, Spadoni G, Maschio G. 2009. The assessment of human health impact caused by industrial and civil activities in the Pace Valley of Messina, Sci. Total Environ 407, 3712–3720.

Norozi Hamed H. 2012. The advantages of installation of a recovery system of flare gases in gas refiners from economic and environmental viewpoints, Educational-Scientific Journal of Safir-e-Omid, Sepanir Oil and Gas Company 58-61.

Official News Website of Ministry of Oil [www. pananews.ir/notes/note.php/id=150; accessed in March 10, 2014].

Official Website of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) (www.pseez.ir ; accessed in March 10, 2009].

Olesen HR, Berkowicz R, Ketzel M, Lofstrom P. 2009. Validation of OML, AERMOD/ PRIME and MISKAM using the Thompson wind-tunnel dataset for simple stack-building configurations, Boundary Layer Meteorol 131, 73–83.

Perry G, Cimorelli J, Paine RJ, Brode RW, Weil C, Venkatram A, Wilson RB, Lee RF, Peters WD. 2005. AERMOD: A Dispersion model for industrial source applications. Part II: Model performance against 17 field study databases, J. Appl. Meteorol 44, 694–708.

Pohl JH, Soelberg NR. 1985. Evaluation of the efficiency of industrial flares: Flare head design and gas composition. Final Report October 82 December 84, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, Irvine, CA, Report, No.PB-86-100559/XAB. 140.

Public Relations of Oil Ministry. 2004. Oil and development, available in [www.sabainfo.ir/fa/news/103730].

Rahimpour MR, Jokar SM. 2012. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: No gas flaring, Journal of Hazardous Materials 209 -210.

Shahini M. 2011. Management of flare gases, Union, Ailar Press (2), 211-242.

Strosher MT. 2000. Characterization of emissions from diffusion flare systems. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 50(10), 1723e1733.

www.EPA.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/effects/index.html [accessed in March 2, 2014].

Zhang Q, Wei Y, Tian W, Yang K. 2008. GIS- based  emission  inventories  of  urban  scale:  A  case study of Hangzhou, China, Atmos. Environ 42, 5150–5165.

Ziarati  M,  Ghiyasuddin  M,  Sadeqju  MS, Nojomi A. 2012. Determination of concentrations of VOCs through passive sampling of fifth refinery of South Pars Gas Complex, Third National Conference of  Perspective  of  Integrated  and  Knowledge-based Stable Development 1-5.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background