Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | May 1, 2016

| Download 1

The study of soil phosphorous status and availability in soils of Urmia Plain, Iran

Nikou Hamzehpour, Sara Mola Ali Abasiyan, Aziz Majidi

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.8(5), 249-256, May 2016


JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Soil nutrients mapping and monitoring are of great importance to reach the goals of sustainable agriculture. In developing countries, neglecting soil test results in unbalanced fertilization of soils. The aim of this research was to investigate soil phosphorous (P) availability and mapping in soils of Urmia Plain, northwest Iran. 277 soil samples from an area of 900 km2 of agricultural lands were taken. Soil samples were gathered from the depth 0-30 cm on a grid of 0.7-1 km. Samples were sieved and analyzed for macro and micro nutrients, organic carbon, calcium carbonate equivalent and clay. In order to map the soil Pav, logarithmic transferred values were used to develop variogram. Then spatial prediction of soil salinity was done on a grid of 500 m using ordinary kriging. Results showed that soil samples commonly had P deficiency based on Olsen critical level of 15 ppm. However, small area at the center of the study area had high values of Pav. Correlation analysis revealed that there were significant correlations (1% probability level) between Pav with organic matter, potassium and copper. The application of the organic fertilizers from sewage slug sources could result in local increase of soil P up to 100 mg/kg or more, while in other parts of the area soil available P is normally below 30 mg/kg. According to the findings of this research, neither organic fertilizers nor chemical fertilizers are not being used based on soil test which can be a problem for both sustainable production and environmental health.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

The study of soil phosphorous status and availability in soils of Urmia Plain, Iran

Bouyoucos CJ. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle-size analysis of soil. Agronomy Journal 54, 464-465.

Cheng Y, Li P, Xu G, Li Zh, Cheng Sh, Gao H. 2016. Spatial distribution of soil total phosphorous in Yingwugou watershed of the Dan River, China. Catena 136, 175-181.

Chen Y, Liu R, Sun Ch, Zhang P, Feng Ch, Shen Zh. 2012. Spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen and phosphorous nutrients in the Yangtze River Estuary. Marine and Pollution Bulletin 64(10), 2083-2089.

Christakos G. Bogaert P, Serre ML. 2002. Temporal GIS. Advanced Functions for Field-Based Applications. Springer-Verlag, New York NY.

Ferreiro-Dominguez N, Nair VD, Freese D. 2016. Phosphorous dynamics in poplar silvopastoral systems fertilized with sewage sludge. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 223, 87-98.

Goetz RU, Keusch A. 2005. Dynamic efficiency of soil erosion and phosphor reduction policies combining economic and biophysical models. Ecological Economics 52(2), 201-218.

Halajnia A, Haghnia GH, Fotovat A, Khorasani R. 2007. Effect of Organic Matter on Phosphorus Availability in Calcareous Soils. Journal of Water and Soil Science 10(4), 121-133.

Hamzehpour N, Eghbal MK, Bogaert B, Toomanian N, Oskoui RS. 2013. Spatial prediction of soil salinity using kriging with measurement errors and probabilistic soft data. Arid Land Research and Management 27(2), 128-139.

Herzel H, Kruger O, Hermann L, Adam Ch. 2016. Science of the total environment, 542(B): 1136-1143. Special Issue on Sustainable Phosphorus Taking stock: Phosphorus supply from natural and anthropogenic pools in the 21st Century.

Knudsen D,  Peterson GA, Pratt  PE. 1982. Lithium, sodium, and potassium. p. 225-246. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Mengel K, Kirkby EA, Kosegarten H, Apple TH. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. ISBN: 978-4020-0008-9. p 673.

Li J, Heap AD. 2008. A Review of Spatial Interpolation Methods for Environmental Scientists. Geoscience Australia, Canberra, Australia.

Lin Ch, Wu Zh, Ma R, Su ZH. 2016. Detection of sensitive soil properties related to non-point phosphorus pollution by integrated models of SEDD and PLOAD. Ecological Indicators 60, 483-494.

Lindsay WL, Norvell WA. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal 42, 421-428.

Livens FR. 1991. Chemical reactions of metals with humic material. Environmental Pollution 70(3), 183-208.

MathWorks Inc. 2010. MatLab, the language of technical computing, using MATLAB version 2010b. The Mathwork Inc., Natick, M.A.

Marquez Molina JJ, Sainato CM, Urricariet AS, Losinno BN, Heredia OS. 2014. Bulk electrical conductivity as an indicator of spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorous at feedlots. Journal of Applied Geophyscics 111, 156-172.

Olsen SR, Sommefrs LE. 1982. Phosphorus. In: Page AL., Miller RH, Keeney DR. 1996. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2. SSSA, Madison, WI, 403 p.

Page T, Haygarth PhM, Beven KJ, Joynes A, Butler T, Keeler Ch, Freer J, Owens Ph N, Wood GA. 2005. Spatial variability of soil phosphorus in relation to the topographic index and critical source areas: sampling for assessing risk to water quality. Journal of Environmental Hazard 34(6), 2263-2277.

Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties8 2nd edition. Agronomy8 vol. 9. ASA, SSSA Publishing, Madison, WI, p. 1159.

Pease LM, Odour P, Padmanabhan G. 2010. Estimating sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorous loads from the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, using AnnAGNPS. Computer and Geosciences 36(3), 282-291.

Piotrowaska-Dlugosz AP, Lemanowicz J, Dlugosz J, Spychaj-Fabisiak E, Gozdowski D, Rybacki M. 2016. Spatio-temporal variations of soil properties in a plot scale: a case study of soil phosphorus forms and related enzymes. Journal of soils and Sediments 16(1), 62-76.

Roger A, Libohova Z, Rossier N, Joost S, Maltas A, Frossard E, Sinaj S. 2014. Spatial variability of soil phosphorus in the Fribourg canton, Switzerland. Geoderma 217-218, 26-36.

Simpson R, Stefanski A, Marshall DJ, Moore AD, Richardson AE. 2015. Management of soil phosphorus fertility determines the phosphorus budget of a temperate grazing system and is the key to improving phosphorus efficiency. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 212, 263-277.

Sharpley AN, Singh U, Uehara G, Kimble J. 1989. Modeling soil and plant phosphorus dynamics in calcareous and highly weathered soils. Soil Science of American Journal 53, 153-158.

Zhang A, He L, Zhao H, Wu Z. 2009. Effect of organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in soil with different phosphorus sources. China Journal of Applied Environmental Biology 15(4), 474- 478.

Zhuo A, He L, Zhao H. 2009. Effect of organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in soils and its readily available phosphate. Acta Ecologica Sinica 29(8), 4061-4069.

Xi B, Zhai LM, Liu J, Liu Sh, Wang HY, Luo ChY, Ren TZh, Liu HB. 2016. Long-term phosphorus accumulation and agronomic and environmtal critical phosphorus levels in Haplic Luvisol soil, northern China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 15(1), 200-208.

Yazdanpanah N, Pazira E, Neshat A, Mahmoodabadi M, Rodriguez S. 2013. Reclamation of calcareous saline sodic soil with different amendments (II): Impact on nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium redistribution and on microbial respiration. Agricultural Water Management 120, 39-45.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background