The sustainable aquaculture in morocco by optimization of the energy of the feed of rainbow trout

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2015
Views (171) Download (8)

The sustainable aquaculture in morocco by optimization of the energy of the feed of rainbow trout

Aba Mustapha, Belghyti Driss, Benabid Mohammed, Maychal aziz
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.7( 1), 36-44, July 2015.
Certificate: IJAAR 2015 [Generate Certificate]


This research is an update in fish nutrition research in Morocco, and provides insight on the progression and evolution of this field in order to meet the needs of the aquaculture with the purpose to achieve a balance in fish nutrition and aquaculture sustainability. In order to compare the effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content of two extruded foods on environment, an experimental test was conducted at National Center of Hydrobiology and Fish Culture in city Azrou Morocco. The comparison of the two foods with different formulation and different energy is perfomed in isoenergetic conditions. Following this study, two diets were formulated ; the extruded diet A with 41% crude protein, 27% fat and 20% carbohydrate while the extruted food B with 39.7% CP, 24 % fat and 15,7 carbohydrates with digestible energy respectively of 21.32 Mj and 19.32 Mj. The initial average weight of the trouts was 100 g from the same batch of eggs were divided randomly into six fiberglass conical tanks at open circuit. The diet was assigned to 6 tanks for 50 fish each with three replicates for each diet. The extruded diet A by low ratio digestible protein/ digestible energy, emits less nitrogen by the effect of the protein-sparing as we also note this food contains less phosphate that releases phosphate discharges decreased by fish, there by contributing to sustainable aquaculture.


Aba M, D Belghyti, Benabid M. 2011. Effets de deux aliments pressés et extrudés sur les performances de croissance de la truite arc en ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss) et leurs impacts environnementaux. Sciencelib Editions Mersenne Volume 3 N° 111205.

Aba M, Belghyti D, Elkharrim K, Benabid, M, Maychal A. 2012. Effects of Pressed and Extruded Foods on Growth performance and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11(2),104-109.

Aba M, Belghyti D, ELkharrim K, Benabid M.2013.Optimization and Efficiency in Rainbow Trout Fed Diets for Reduce the Environment Impact in Morocco. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology3(2),318-325.

Aubin J, Papatryphon E, Van der Werf HMG, Chatzifotis S.2009. Assessment of the environmental impact of carnivorous finfish production systems using life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production 17(3),354-361.

Azevedo PA, Leeson S, Cho CY, Bureau DP.2004. Growth and feed utilization of large size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in freshwater: diet and species effects, and responses over time. Aquaculture. Nutrition 10, 401–411.

Belghyti D, Benyakhlef M, Naji S.2007. Caractérisation des rejets liquides d’une conserverie de poissons Bulletin de la Société de Pharmacie de Bordeaux 146, 225-234.

Brett JR, Groves TDD. 1979. Physiological energetics. Fish Physiology, Vol. VIII (eds W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall and J.R. Brett), 279–352 p. Academic Press, New York.

Boaventura R, Pedro AM, Coimbra J, Lencastre E. 1997.Trout farm effluents: characterization and impact on the receiving streams. Environmental Pollution 95, 379-387.

Boujard T, Vallee F, Vachot C. 1999. Evaluation des rejets d’origine nutritionnelle de truiticultures par la méthode des bilans, comparaison avec les flux sortants. Dossier de l’environnement de l’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique n°26, Paris, 110p.

Boujard T. 2004. Aquaculture Environnement. Les dossiers de l’environnement de l’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomiquen°26, Paris, 110 p.

Bureau DP. 2004. Factors Affecting Metabolic Waste Outputs in Fish. In: Cruz Suárez, L.E., Ricque Marie, D., Nieto López,M.G., Villarreal, D., Scholz, U. y González, M. 2004. Avances en Nutrición Acuícola VII. Memorias del VII Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuícola. 16-19 Noviembre, 2004. Hermosillo, Sonora, México.

Cheng ZJ, Hardy RW.2002. Apparent digestibility coefficients and nutritional value of cottonseed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 212, 361 – 372.

Cho CY, Bureau DP. 2001. A review of diet formulation strategies and feeding systems to reduce excretory and feed wastes in aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 32(suppl.1),349-360.

Crab R, Avnimelech Y, Defoirdt T, Bossier P, Verstraete W.2007. Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production. Aquaculture270,1-14.

Craig S, HelfrichLA. 2002. Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds and Feeding, Cooperative Extension Service, publication 420–256. Virginia State University, USA.

Eliason EJ, Higgs DA, Farrell AP.2007. Effect of isoenergetic diets with different protein and lipid content on the growth performance and heat increment of rainbow trout. Aquaculture272, 723-736.

Einen O, Roem AJ.1997. Dietary protein/energy ratios for Atlantic salmon in relation to fish size: growth, feed utilization and slaughter quality. Aquaculture Nutrition 3, 115-126.

Guillaume J, Medale F. 2001. Nutrition and feeding of fish and crustaceans. Nutritional Energetics: 59-79.

Green JA, Brannon EL, Hardy R. 2002. Effects of dietary phosphorus and lipid levels on utilization and excretion of phosphorus and nitrogen by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). 2. Production-scale study. Aquaculture Nutrition8,291- 298

Hardy RW. 2002. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In: Webster, C.D. and C. E. Lim (Eds.). Nutrient requirements andfeeding of finfish for aquaculture. CABI Publishing, New York, New York, USA, 184-202.

Hardy RW, Barrows FT. 2002. Diet formulation and manufacture. In: Fish Nutrition. J.E. Halver and R.W. Hardy (eds.), 3rd edition. London Academic Press. 505-600 p.

Kim JD, Kaushik SJ, Breque J. 1998. Nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with or without fish meal. Aquatic Living Resources, Paris11(4),261-264.

Kaushik SJ, Cowey CB. 1991 .Dietary factors affecting nitrogen excretion by fish, p. 7-19. In : Cowey C B and Cho C Y (editors). Nutritional strategies and aquaculture waste. Proc. First Int. Symp. Nutritional Strategies in Management of Aquaculture Waste. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada 1990, 275p.

Kaushik SJ. 2005. Besoins et apport en phosphore chez les poissons, l’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Productions Animales.18 (3), 203-208.

Lall SP. 1991. Digestibility, metabolism and excretion of dietary phosphorus in fish. In: COWEY, C.B., CHO, C.Y. (Eds.). Nutritional Strategies and Aquaculture Waste. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Nutritional Strategies in Management of Aquaculture Waste. University of Guelph, Ontario, 21-36.

Lall SP. 2002. The minerals. In: Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. (Eds.), Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 259–308 p.

Lanari D, D’Agaro E, Ballestrazzi R.1995. Effect of dietary DP/DE ratio on apparent digestibility, growth and nitrogen and phosphorus retention in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Nutrition1, 105- 110.

Lazzari R, Baldisserotto B.2008. Nitrogen and phopsphorus waste in fish farming . Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo 34(4),591 – 600.

Maillard VM, Boardman GD, Nyland JE, Kuhn DD. 2005. Water quality and sludge characterization at raceway-system trout farms. Aquacultural Engineering 33, 271-284.

Medale F. 2010. Pratiques d’élevage et qualité nutritionnelle des lipides des poissons. Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides Journal. 17(1), Janvier-Février 2010.

Morrow MD, Higgs D, Kennedy CJ. 2004. The effects of diet composition and ration on biotransformation enzymes and stress parameters in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 137(2), 143-154.

Murdoch A, McKnight SD.1991. CRC, Handbook of Techniques for Aquatic Sediments Sampling, Chemical Rubber Company Press, Boca Raton, FL, 210 p.

National Research Council (NRC). 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, National Academy Press.

Pagand P, Blancheton JP, Casellas C. 2000. A model for predicting the quantities of dissolved inorganic nitrogen released in effluents from a sea bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) recalculating water system, Aquacultural Engineering 22,137-153.

Peres H, Oliva-Teles A. 2001. Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on metabolic utilization of diets by European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 25, 269-275.

Pulatsu S, Rad F, Köksal G, Aydýn F, Karasu Benli AÇ, Topçu A. 2004. The impact of rainbow trout farm effluents on water quality of Karasu stream, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 4,9-15.

R.Development Core Team. R 2011. A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Rodehutscord M, Gregus Z, Pfeffer E. 2000. Effect of phosphorus intake on faecal and non-faecal phosphorus excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the consequences for comparative phosphorus availability studies. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 188,383-398.

Roque d’Orbcastel E, Blancheton JP, Aubin J. 2009. Towards environmentally sustainable aquaculture: comparison between two trout farming systems using Life Cycle Assessment. Aquacultural Engineering 40, 113-119.

Roy PK, Lall SP. 2004. Urinary phosphorus in haddock, Melanogrammusaeglefinus and Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. (233),369-382.

Satoh S, Hernandez A, Tokoro T, Morishita Y, Kiron V, Watanabe T. 2003. Comparison of phosphorus retention efficiency between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a commercial diet and a low fish meal based diet. Aquaculture, Amsterdam 224,271-282.

Sindilariu PD. 2007. Reduction in effluent nutrient loads from flow-through facilities for trout production: a review. Aquaculture Research 38, 1005-1036.

Sugiura SH, Babbitt JK, Dong FM, Hardy RW. 2000. Utilization of fish and animal by-product meals in low-pollution feeds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Walbaum). Aquatic Research 31, 585–593.

Sugiura SH, Ferraris RP. 2004.Contributions of different NaPi cotransporter isoforms to dietary regulation of P transport in the pyloric caeca and intestine of rainbow trout. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 2055-2064.

Tekinay AA, Guroy D, Cevik N. 2009. The Environmental Effect of a Land-Based Trout Farm on Yuvarlakçay, Turkey. Ekoloji 19(73), 65-70.

Thompson FL, Abreu PC, Wasielesky W. 2002. Importance of biofilm for water quality and nourishment in intensive shrimp culture. Aquaculture 203, 263–278.

Tovar A, Moreno C, Manuel-Vez MP, Garcia-Vargas M. 2000. Environmental Impacts Of Intensive Aquculture In Marine Waters, Water Resources34,334- 342.

Vandenberg G, Gabriel KD, Pallab K, ProulxE. 2010 .Effects of alternating feeding regimes with varying dietary phosphorus levels on growth, mineralization, phosphorus retention and loading of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Aquatic Living Resources 23,277-284.

Watanabe T. 2002. Strategies for further development of aquatic feeds. Fisheries Sciences68, 242-252.

Wedemeyer GA. 1996. Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems. Chapman and Hall, New York, 232 p.

Young CC, Bureau DP. 1998. Development of bioenergetic models and the Fish-PrFEQ software to estimate production, feeding ration and waste output in aquaculture, Aquatic Living Resources 11(4),199-210.