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Theoretical risk assessment of lead, cadmium and arsenic mixture linked to consumption of garden products from Cotonou, Benin

Luc Koumolou, Zoua T. Kadebe, Guillaume K. Ketoh, Kissao Gnandi, Eklu Gadégbéku, Kodjo K. Aklikokou, Edmond E. Creppy, Patrick A. Edorh

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.4(6), 359-369, June 2014


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Human-beings’ exposures, whether simultaneous or sequential, are not just to one chemical but to chemicals’ mixture. It is the case of coexposure to lead, cadmium and arsenic through the consumption of vegetables from Cotonou (Benin republic). This survey is a theoretical assessment of risk linked to mixture of these toxic based on assumption of contaminated garden products according to concentrations addition model recommended with regard to the assessment of chemicals mixture. The Daily Exposure Dose calculated in µg/kg/day for lead, cadmium and arsenic is respectively, 9.0, 2.67 and 170.03 for a child and respectively, 2.76; 0.82 and 52.30 for an adult against WHO norms that are 3.6; 1 and 2.14 μg/kg/day. The addition of doses gave respectively, 181.7 μg/kg/day for a child versus 55.88 for an adult against fixed value, 6.74 μg/kg/day. The mixture hazard index (HIm) calculated according to the model that uses reference value of each component (RfDi) and the one that uses mixture reference values (RfDm), is respectively, 84.67 and 132.6 for a child but 26.02 and 40.81 for an adult whereas this HIm/adult calculated without considering arsenic exposure is around 1. These results showed that, chemicals with common modes of action will act jointly to produce combination effects that are larger than the effects of each mixture component applied singly.


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