Toxicity evaluation of coconut oil extracted with switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) as a potential solvent contamination indicator

Paper Details

Research Paper 13/07/2023
Views (483) Download (74)

Toxicity evaluation of coconut oil extracted with switchable hydrophilicity solvent (SHS) as a potential solvent contamination indicator

Jeleen Joyce F. Neri, Janus B. Pansacala
Int. J. Biosci.23( 1), 262-269, July 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Toxicity screening of Coconut Oil Extracted with Switchable Hydrophilicity Solvent (COCOSHS) and consideration for presence of trace Switchable Hydrophilicity Solvent (SHS) from the extracted oil were assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA). Evaluation of the toxicity were also compared to N,N-Dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA) as a pure SHS solvent and pure Crude Coconut Oil (CCO). The total number of dead larvae was counted for each dosage at designated period exposures. For the percent mortalities, COCOSHS and DMCHA were found out to have similar trend of increasing percent mortality with respect to different concentrations at 6-hour and 24-hour period exposures but not with CCO sample. On the other hand, in terms of their LC50 values at 6-hours, all samples didn’t exhibit acute toxicity since their LC50 values were above 1000 ppm. However, at 24-hour exposure, COCOSHS was classified as low toxic whereas DMCHA was classified as moderately toxic and CCO was classified as non-toxic indicating indirectly that SHS solvent might still remained in COCOSHS sample. In addition, it was found out that the difference between COCOSHS and CCO, COCOSHS and DMCHA were significant at the 95% confidence level for 6-hour and 24-hour exposure times which suggested that the null hypothesis was rejected. Based on the data and identified toxicity level of COCOSHS sample, it is highly possible that some DMCHA solvent used from the extraction process were still present and not sufficiently removed thus indicating that BSLA could serve as simple and cheap alternative in qualitatively assessing solvent contamination in SHS extraction.


Abbas O, Baeten V. 2016. 19 – Advances in the Identification of Adulterated Vegetable Oils. In G. Downey (Ed.), Advances in Food Authenticity Testing (pp. 519-542). Woodhead Publishing.

Arambasic M, Randhawa M. 2014. Comparison of the methods of Finney and Miller-Tainter for the calculation of LD50 values. World Appl. Sci. J 32(10), 2167-2170.

Boyd AR, Champagne P, McGinn PJ, MacDougall KM, Melanson JE, Jessop PG. 2012. Switchable hydrophilicity solvents for lipid extraction from microalgae for biofuel production. Bioresource Technology 118, 628-632.

Durelle J, Vanderveen JR, Quan Y, Chalifoux CB, Kostin JE, Jessop PG. 2015. Extending the range of switchable-hydrophilicity solvents. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17(7), 5308-5313.

Gunstone FD. 1952. Vegetable oils. The component acids of Strophanthus sarmentosus seed oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 3(4), 185-189.

Holland A, Wechsler D, Patel A, Molloy BM, Boyd AR, Jessop PG. 2012. Separation of bitumen from oil sands using a switchable hydrophilicity solvent. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 90(10), 805-810.

Kessler N. 1985. Understanding Solvent Extraction of Vegetable Oils (E. Hammond, J. McNeal, R. Ridoutt, Eds.; Vol. 41). Volunteers in Technical Assistance.

Maguigad J. 2018. Extraction of Coconut Oil Using N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine. Bachelor’s Thesis. Western Mindanao State University. 1-55.

Nde DB, Foncha AC. 2020. Optimization Methods for the Extraction of Vegetable Oils: A Review. Processes 8(2).

Phan L, Brown H, White J, Hodgson A, Jessop PG. 2009. Soybean oil extraction and separation using switchable or expanded solvents. Green Chemistry 11(1), 53-59.

Piloto-Rodríguez R, Melo EA, Goyos-Pérez L, Verhelst S. 2014. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 31(2), 287-301. 

Randhawa M. 2009. Calculation of LD50 values from the method of Miller and Tainter, 1944. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC 21, 184-185.

Sarah QS, Anny FC, Misbahuddin M. 2017. Brine shrimp lethality assay. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 12(2).

Savoire R, Lanoisellé JL, Vorobiev E. 2012. Mechanical Continuous Oil Expression from Oilseeds: A Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6.

Sorgeloos P, Remiche-Van Der Wielen C, Persoone G. 1978. The use of Artemia nauplii for toxicity tests- A critical analysis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2(3), 249-255.

Vanderveen JR, Durelle J, Jessop PG. 2014. Design and evaluation of switchable-hydrophilicity solvents. Green Chemistry 16(3), 1187-1197.

Wu C. 2014. An important player in brine shrimp lethality bioassay: The solvent. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 5(1), 57-58.