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Toxicity evaluation of white spike head (Kyllinga nemoralis) using brine shrimp lethality test and anthelminthic assay

Jay P. Picardal, Kristine Jade Abella, Rania Abella, Mary Julianne Villamor, Marchee T. Picardal

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Int. J. Biosci.14(6), 132-142, June 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.6.132-142


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Kyllinga nemoralis has been utilized for the treatment of various illnesses in developing countries because it is inexpensive and readily available but toxicity evaluation of this plant is still unreported in scientific publications. This study investigated the toxicity level of combined roots and leaves of K. nemoralis (40g) using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay and Earthworm Assay. The study employed Complete Randomized Design in triplicates (n= 210 A. salina nauplii and n=126 E. euginiae).  For BSLA, four K. nemoralis ethanolic root+leaf extracts [KNERLE] (T1=1000ppm; T2=100ppm; T3=10ppm; and T4=1ppm) were tested for toxicity while in earthworm assay, four K. nemoralis aqueous root+leaf extracts [KNARLE] (T1=25g/ml; T2=20g/ml; T3=15g/ml; and T4=10g/ml) were tested for time paralysis and mortality. After 24h experimental period, mortality data were analyzed using ANOVA (p<0.01) and post hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) while Probit analysis was employed to determine toxicity level of KNERLE at LC50. Result showed that there is a linear dose-dependent trends of KNERLE and KNARLE vs. nauplii (LC50 = 18.97ppm) and earthworm mortality (100% mortality comparable to positive control, Albendazole), respectively, suggesting that higher treatment concentration exhibit toxicity and anthelminthic properties. The study suggests that K. nemoralis root+leaf extracts are strongly toxic, and further investigation of toxicity using higher vertebrate models’ tissue and organ level is recommended.


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Toxicity evaluation of white spike head (Kyllinga nemoralis) using brine shrimp lethality test and anthelminthic assay

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