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Toxoplasmosis; Seroprevalence, Comparative analysis of diagnostic techniques and identification of risk factors in humans in Malakand Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Research Paper | August 15, 2014

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Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Saleem Ur Rahman, Nigar Gul, Ayaz Ali Khan

Key Words: Toxoplasmosis, Abortion, ELISA, ICT, LAT

Int. J. Biosci.5( 4), 1-6, August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/5.4.1-6


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Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and is a wide spread parasitic zoonoses affecting a broad range of mammals and birds. Members of family Felidae are specific hosts for T. gondii. Specific IgA, IgM, and then IgG antibodies appearance usually indicate the onset of an acute T. gondii infection. The aim of the study was to check the seroprevalence of T. gondii and related risk factors in Tehsil Batkhela, Malakand Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 420 females were screened during four months study. Sera were collected and examined by Immune Chromatographic Technique (ICT), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) for detection of antibodies against T. gondii. The results were evaluated for occurrence rate; age wise occurrence, comparison of occurrence of T. gondii in pregnant and non-pregnant females, relation between animal contact and toxoplasmosis, T. gondii and abortion, comparison of ICT, ELISA and LAT. The overall occurrence rate was 65.71%, which was quite alarming. Middle age group (21-30 years) females were highly affected (41.31%). Pregnant women had high infection level than non-pregnant. No any positive relation was found between the occurrence of toxoplasmosis and cats contact. Higher occurrence rate was found in aborted women. ELISA IgM method was found to be the most sensitive, reliable and accurate for the detection of T. gondii infection as compared to other methods. It may be recommended to study the same work on large population to identify further risk factors and to develop a molecular diagnostic assay for the accurate diagnosis of the infection.


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