Transport behavior and risk evaluation of pharmaceutical contaminants from Swaswa Wastewater Stabilization Ponds

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Research Paper 01/02/2022
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Transport behavior and risk evaluation of pharmaceutical contaminants from Swaswa Wastewater Stabilization Ponds

Angelina Makaye, Asha S Ripanda, Hossein Miraji
J. Bio. Env. Sci.20( 2), 30-41, February 2022.
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Researchers repeatedly discovered primary pharmaceutical contaminants, their metabolites, and transformation products in aquatic ecosystems. Body metabolism may not convert consumed pharmaceuticals to their metabolic elements before excretion. In this case, clinical and industrial wastes ensure their presence in the environment. Nevertheless, conventional wastewater treatment methods are ineffective for removing pharmaceutical wastes. Once in the ecosystem, they alter the physiological response of nontarget exposed aquatic and even terrestrial organisms due to induced toxicity. In the course of this study at Swaswa Wastewater Stabilization Ponds (SWSP), the transport of the quantified 0.104 ppm of metronidazole under advection mode in a laminar flow to a longitudinal predictive distance of 230 m. Beyond this distance, no significant concentration changes. The quantified metronidazole had a risk quotient of less than 1, implying no toxicity risks. Despite being acceptable, their hydrophobic nature and physiological activeness present a long-term ecological risk such as developing antibiotic resistance genes, endocrine disruption, and immunity suppression. A combination of engineered constructed wetlands and adsorption using biodegradable adsorbents are among natural remedial practices for eliminating pharmaceuticals with promising efficacy, cost-effectiveness and being environmentally friendly.


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