Tree species composition, diversity and structure of Finima Nature Park, Bonny Island, Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 20/11/2022
Views (462) Download (62)

Tree species composition, diversity and structure of Finima Nature Park, Bonny Island, Nigeria

Rosemary Egodi Ubaekwe, Uzoma Darlington Chima, Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun
J. Bio. Env. Sci.21( 5), 161-171, November 2022.
Certificate: JBES 2022 [Generate Certificate]


This study evaluated the tree species composition, diversity and structure of Finima Nature Park, to ascertain its status and provide essential information that could enhance sustainable management of the Park. Random sampling was used to delineate 30 sample plots of 30×30 m size. All tree species≥ 10cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were identified to species level and enumerated. Total tree height and dbh were measured using clinometer and diameter tape, respectively. Shanon-Weiner and Simpson’s indices were used to assess tree species diversity. Importance Value Index (IVI) and forest structure were estimated; data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 52 tree species from 27 families were Identified; Anthostema aubryanum, and the Euphorbiaceae family, dominated the Park; Alchornea cordifolia and Cecropiaceae were the least encountered species and family, respectively. Low population density of many tree species and high percentage of low diameter class tree species were recorded. No tree with diameter above 90cm was encountered in the Park. Shanon-Weiner and Simpson’s index values were 3.10 and 0.93, respectively. Finima Nature Park showed high species diversity and good regeneration potentials. However, there is the need to apprehend the low population density of many tree species and initiate plans to enhance their populations. Illegal logging should be checked and the protection of the Park enhanced to encourage the growth of tree species to larger diameter classes.


Addo-Fordjour P, Anning AK, Atakora EA, PS. 2008. Diversity and distribution of climbing plants in a semi-deciduous rain forest, KNUST botanic garden, Ghana. Int. J. Bot 4, 186-195.

Adekunle VAJ, Nair NK, Srivastava AK, Singh NK. 2014.Volume yield, tree species diversity and carbon hoard in protected areas of two developing countries, Forest Science and Technology, 10(2), 89-103.

Adekunle VAJ, Olagoke AO, Ogundare LF. 2010. Rate of timber production in a Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem of Southwest Nigeria and its implications on Sustainable Forest Management. Journal of Forestry Research 21, 225-230.

Agbagwa IO, Chimezie E. 2011. Structure and Phytodiversity of Freshwater Swamp Forest in Oil-rich Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry 5, 66-77. DOI: 10.3923/rjf.2011.66.77

Alder D, Abayomi JO. 1994. Assessment of data requirements for sustained yield calculations. A consultancy report prepared for the Nigerian Tropical Forest Action Plan, FORMECU. Federal Department of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria. Volume 76.

Bradford M, Murphy HT. 2019. The importance of large-diameter trees in the wet tropical rainforests of Australia. PLoS One 14, e0208377.

Brashears MB, Fajvan MA, Schuler TM. 2004. An Assessment of Canopy Stratification and Tree Species Diversity Following Clear cutting in Central Appalachian Hardwoods. Forest Science 50, 54-64.

Chenge IB1, Agbike MO1, Shomkegh SA. 2020. Forest Structure Analysis of Akopi Forest In Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment Vol. 12(1), 79-85.

Chong CW, Pearce DA, Convey P. 2015. Emerging spatial patterns in Antarctic prokaryotes. Front Microbiol 6, 1-14. https://doi. org/10.3389/ fmicb.2015.01058

Chowdhury MAM, Huda MK, Iseam ASM. 2000. Phytodiversity Dipterocarpusturbinatus  Gaertn. F. (garjan) undergrowths at Dulahazaragarjan forest, Cos`s Bazar, Bangaladesh. Ind. For 126, 674-684.

Clark DB, Hurtado J, Saatchi SS. 2019. Tropical Rain Forest Structure, Tree Growth and Dynamics along a 2700-m Elevational Transect in Costa Rica. PLoS ONE 10(4), e0122905.

Djomo AN. 2015. A Structure Analysis for Ecological Management of Moist Tropical Forests; International Journal of Forestry Research. Article ID 161645.

FAO. 2005. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 FAO forestry paper. Rome.

FAO. 2006. Global forest resources assessment 2005. Progress towards sustainable for estrangement. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. Forestry paper 147, 348p.

Franklin JF, Spies TA, Van Pelt R, Carey AB, Thornburgh DA, Berg DR. 2002. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas- Fir forests as an example. For Ecol Manag. 155(13), 399-423.

Guisan A, Thuiller W. 2005. Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol Lett 8(9), 993-1009.

Hadi S, Ziegler T, Waltert M, Hodges JK. 2009. Tree diversity and forest structure in Northern Siberut, Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. Tropical Ecology 50(2), 315-327.

Hall JB, Harris DJ, Medjibe V, Ashton PMS. 2003. The effects of selective logging on forest structure and tree species composition in a central African Forest: implications for management of conservation areas. Forest Ecology and management 183, 249-264.

Hořák D, Ferenc M, Sedláček O, Motombi FN, Svoboda M, Altman J, Albrecht T, Djomo Nana E, Janeček Š, Dančák M, Majeský Ľ, Lltonga EN, Doležal J. 2019. Forest structure determines spatial changes in avian communities along an elevational gradient in tropical Africa. Journal of Biogeography 46, 2466-2478.

Huang WD, Pohlonen V, Johansson S, Nashanda M, Katigula MIL, Luukkanen O. 2003. Species diversity, forest structure and species composition in Tanzanian tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management 173, 11-24.

Hughes JB, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR. 1997. Population diversity: its extent and extinction. Science 278(5338), 689-692.

Husch B, Charles IM, Thomas WB. 2003. Forest Mensuration. New York: The Ronald Press Company. 410p.

Igu NI. 2017. Species Diversity and Structure of an Intact Freshwater Swamp Forest in   the Niger Delta. Open Journal of Forestry 7, 242-254.

Jimoh SO,  Adesoye PO, Adeyemi AA, Ikyaagba ET. 2012. Forest Structure Analysis in the Oban Division of Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2(5), 510-518.

Larue EA, Hardiman BS, Elliott JM, Fei S. 2019. Structural diversity as a predictor of ecosystem function. Environmental ResearchLetters 14, 114011.

Limited. Finima, Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria Ojo LO. 2004. The fate of a tropical rainforest in Nigeria: Abeku sector of Omo Forest Reserve. The International Journal. 6(2),116-130.

Lu XT, Yin JX, Tang JW. 2010. Structure, tree species diversity and composition of tropical seasonal rainforests in Xishuangbanna, South-West China. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 22, 260-270.

Mace GM, Collar NJ, Gaston KJ, Hilton-Taylor C, Akçakaya HR. 2008. Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.111/j.1523-1739.2008.01044.x)

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Millennium ecosystem assessment. Island, Washington.

Newbery DM. 1991. Floristic variation within Kerangas heath forest: Re-evaluation of data from Sarawak and Brunei. Vegetation 96, 43-86.

Rajkumar M, Parthasarathy N. 2008. Tree Diversity and Structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests India. Taiwania 53, 356-368.

Rodrigues ASL, Pilgrim JD, Lamoreux JF, Hoffmann M, Brooks TM. 2006. The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecol. Evol. 21(2), 71-76.

Saxena AK, Singh JS. 1984. Tree population structure of certain Himalayan forest associations and implications concerning the future composition. Vegetation 58, 61-69.

Westgate MJ, Barton PS, Lane PW, Lindenmayer DB. 2014. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships. Nat Commun 5, 1-8.