Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Two years impact of single praziquantel treatment on infection of urinary schistosomiasis in the Barombi Kotto focus, Cameroon

Research Paper | March 1, 2013

| Download 3

Nkengazong Lucia1, Njiokou Flobert, Asonganyi Tazoacha

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.3( 3), 98-107, March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.3.98-107


IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


To evaluate the impact of a single dose praziquantel on urinary schistosomiasis in the Barombi Kotto focus, urine samples were collected from 306 participants (279 school children and 27 volunteer parents) of the Barombi Kotto health area from May 2007 to May 2009 and examined using the filtration technique. A malacological survey was conducted to identify and follow up the infection rates of the intermediate snail host. The overall prevalence (69.17 %) of Schistosoma haematobium was significantly different between boys (73.22%) and girls (66.66%; P = 0.03), same as between the island (84.3 %) and mainland (60.45 %; P = 0.0001) quarters. The prevalence reduced significantly by 55.03 % (from 69.17 % to 31.10 %; P= 0.0001) and intensity of infection by 76.16% (from 212.1 to 50.56 eggs/10 ml urine; P= 0.01) at 2 years post treatment. Heavy S. haematobium infections in school children decreased from 23.31 % to 2.12% at 2 years post treatment. The infection rates of the intermediate snail hosts (Bulinus truncatus and B. camerunensis) identified reduced from 3.7 % to 0.9 %. These results show a significant impact of a single dose praziquantel in reducing S. haematobium infections after two years. The general uptrend of the prevalence and intensity of infection observed requires a continued monitoring of the disease transmission, repeated treatment and availability of adequate sanitation facilities in the Barombi Kotto focus.


Copyright © 2013
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Two years impact of single praziquantel treatment on infection of urinary schistosomiasis in the Barombi Kotto focus, Cameroon

Duke BO, Moore PJ. 1976. The use of molluscicide in conjunction with chemotherapy to control Schistosoma haematobium at the Barombi lake foci in Cameroon.11. Urinary examination methods, the use of niridazole to attack the parasite in man, and the effect on transmission from man to snail. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 27, 489-504.

Garba A, Campagne G, Tassie JM, Barkire A, Vera C, Sellin B, Chippaux JP. 2004. Evaluation à long terme d’un traitement de masse par le praziquantel sur la morbidité due à Schistosoma haematobium dans deux villages hyperendémiques du Niger. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 97, 7-11.

Green HK, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Basanez MG, Betson M, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, Stothard JR. 2011. Anaemia in Ugandan preschool-aged children: the relative contribution of intestinal parasites and malaria. Parasitology 12, 1534-45.

Greer GJ, Mimpfoundi R, Malek EA, Joky A, Ngonseu E, Ratard RC. 1990. Human schistosomiasis in Cameroon, II. Distribution of the snail hosts. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 42, 573-580.

Kabatereine NB, Standley CJ, Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Fleming FM, Stothard JR, Talisuna A, Fenwick A. 2011. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in lake Victoria, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-232.

Kihara JH, Muhoho N, Njomo D, Mwobobia IK, Josyline K, Awazawa T, Amano T, Mwandawiro C. 2007. Drug efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in school children in Mwea Division, Central Province, Kenya. Acta Tropica 102, 165-171.

King CH. 2006. Long-term outcomes of school-based treatment for control of urinary schistosomiasis: a review of experience in coast province, Kenya. Memorias do instituto Oswaldo cruz 101, 1-14.

King CH. 2010. Parasite and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis. Acta Tropica 113, 95-104.

King CH, Dickman K, Tisch DJ. 2005. Reassessment of the cost of chronic helmintic infection: a meta-analysis of disability-related outcomes in endemic schistosomiasis. Lancet 365, 1561-1569.

King CH, Olbrych SK, Soon M, Singer ME, Carter J, Colley DG. 2011. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high risk communities in africa: a systematic review. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 5(9), e1329.

Koukounari A, Fenwick A, Whawell S, Kabatereine NB, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa EM, Stothard JR, Donnelly CA, Webster JP. 2006. Morbidity indicators of Schistosoma mansoni: relationship between infection and anemia in Uganda schoolchildren before and after praziquantel and albendazol chemotherapy. America Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 278-286.

Magnussen P. 2003. Treatment and re-treatment strategy for schistosomiasis control in different epidemiological settings: a review of 10 years experience. Acta Tropica 86, 243-54.

Margolis L, Esch W, Holmes JC, Kuris AM, Schad GA. 1982. The use of ecological terms in parasitology (Report of an adhoc committee of American Society of parasitologists). Journal of parasitology 68(1), 131-133.

Martyne TS, Essame O, Ratard RC. 2007. High risk behaviours and schistosomiasis infection in Kumba, South-West Province, Cameroon. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health 4(2), 101-105.

Mduluza T, Ndhlovu PD, Madziwa TM, Midzi N, Zinyama R, Turner CMR, Chandiwana SK, Nyazema N, Hagan P. 2001. The impact of repeated treatment with praziquantel of schistosomiasis in children under six years of age living in an endemic area for Schistosoma haematobium infection. Memorias do instituto Oswaldo cruz, 96: 157-164.

Mimpfoundi R, Ndassa A. 2005. Studies on the morphology and compatibility between Schistosoma haematobium and the Bulinus sp. Complex (Gasterpoda: Planorbidae) in Cameroon. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(9), 1010-1016.

Moyou-Somo R, Tagni Zukam D, Kouamouo J, Enyong P, Ripert C. 1987. Epidemiologic and radiologic study of urinary bilharziasis in the focus of Barombi lake (Meme Department), Cameroon. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 80 (5), 813-25.

Ndamukong KJ, Ayuk MA, Dinga JS, Akenji TN, Ndiforchu VA, Titanji VP. 2001. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children of the Kotto Barombi Health Area, Cameroon. East African Medicine Journal 78(6), 287-289.

Njiokou F, Onguene AR, Tchuem Tchuente LA, Kenmogne A. 2004. Bilharziose urbaine au Cameroun : étude longitudinale de la transmission dans un nouveau site d’extension du foyer de bilharziose de Melen, Yaoundé. Bulletin de la Sociéte de Pathologie Exothique 97, 37-40.

Nkengazong L, Njiokou F, Teukeng F, Enyong P, Wanji S. 2009. Reassessment of endemicity level of urinary schistosomiasis in the Kotto Barombi focus (South West Cameroon) and impact of mass drug administration (MDA) on the parasitic indices. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 3 (9), 159-164.

Nsowah-Nuamah NN, Aryeetey ME, Jolayemi ET, Wagatsuma Y, Mensah G, Dontwi IK. 2004. Predicting the timing of second praziquantel treatment and its effect on reduction of egg counts in Southern Ghana. Acta Tropica 90, 263-270.

Plouvier S, Leroy JC, Collette J. 1975. A propos d’une technique simple de filtration des urines dans la diagnostic de la bilharziose urinaire en enquête de masse. Médicine Tropicale 35, 229-230.

Ratard CR, Kouemeni LE, Bessala MMES, Ndamkou CN, Greer GJ, Spilsbur J, Cline BC. 1990. Human Schistiosomiaisis in Cameroon: 1. Distribution of schistosomiaisis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 42, 561-572.

Saathoff E, Olsen A, Kvalsvig JD, Appleton CC. 2004. Patterns of Schistosoma haematobium infection, impact of praziquantel treatment and re-infection after treatment in school children from rural Kwazulu-Natal, South-Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases 4, 27-34.

Satayathum SA, Muchiri EM, Ouma JH, Whalen CC, King CH. 2006. Factors affecting infection or reinfection with schistosoma haematobium in coastal Kenya: survival analysis during a nine year school based treatment program. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 83-92.

Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ. 1981. Biometry. 2nd edition, Freeman & Co., New York. p. 659.

Sousa-Figueiredo JC, Gamboa D, Pedro JM, Fançony C, Langa AJ, Magalhaes JS, Stothard JR, Nery SV. 2012. Epidemiology of malaria, geohelminths, anaemia and malnutrition in the context of a demographic surveillance system in Northern Angola. Plos One 7 (4), 1-9.

Sturrock RF, Karam sadkar SJ, Ouma JH. 1979. Schistosome infection rate in field snails. Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Kenya. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 73, 365-371.

Tchuem Tchuenté LA, Behnke JM, Gilbert FS, Southgate VR, Vercruysse J. 2003. Polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminth infections among school children in Loum, Cameroon. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8(11), 975-986.

Wamachi AN, Mayadev JS, Mungai PL, Magak PL, Ouma JH, Magambo JK, Muchiri EM, Koech DK, King CH, King CL. 2004. Increased ratio of tumor necrosis factor-alpha to interleukin-10 production is associated with Schistosoma haematobium-induced urinary-tract morbidity. Journal of infectious Diseases 190, 2020-2030.

WHO. 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. WHO Technical Report Series 912, 1-57.

Woolhouse ME, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, Hagan P, Hii JL, Ndhlovu PD, Quinnell RJ, Watts CH, Chandiwana SK, Anderson RM. 1997. Hetergeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 338-342.

Woolhouse ME, Etard JF, Dietz K, Ndhlovu PD, Chandiwana SK. 1998. Hetergeneities in schistosome transmission dynamics and control. Parasitoloy 117, 475-482.

Zhang Y, Koukounari A, Kabaterine N, Fleming F, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa E, Stohard R, Webster JP, Fenwick A. 2007. Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Uganda. BMC Medicine 5, 27-43.