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Type 1 diabetes: basis of causes and away of prevention

Md. Shamim Hossain, Mst. Touhida khatun

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Int. J. Biomol. & Biomed.3(1), 1-11, January 2013

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Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food, store fat, and build up protein and without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. The genetic factors involved consist of multiple susceptibility genes, at least five of which, HLA, INS, CTLA4, PTPN22 and IL2RA/CD25. The excess mortality associated with the complications of type 1 diabetes and the increasing incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes emphasize the importance of therapeutic strategies to prevent this chronic disorder. Although no current “cure” exists, recent genetic data and preliminary trial results suggest T cells as a target for preventive strategies. Another potentially attainable target is induction of tolerance to the ß-cell proteins such as insulin that are inappropriately recognized. Other strategies involve ß-cell replacement, but currently there are insufficient donor cells available. But researchers revealed that breastfeeding, taking proper exercise, vaccination against causing enterovirous, vitamin D, regulation of maternal diet and keep away from smoking are the best away prevent from type 1 diabetes. This review aims to provide the link of causing type 1 diabetes and the away of prevention to the type 1 diabetes patient.

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Type 1 diabetes: basis of causes and away of prevention

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