Typhoid fever in children: A Review

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2021
Views (365) Download (23)

Typhoid fever in children: A Review

Hedaa M. Nahab, Hawraa F. Wali, Mouna Akeel Hamed Al-Oebady
Int. J. Biosci.19( 6), 35-43, December 2021.
Certificate: IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Typhoid fever was a chronic systemic infection caused by Salmonella enteric, serovar typhoid, gram-negative bacteria. Low sanitation and public health standards are serious public health issues in underdeveloped countries in the tropics and subtropics. Multidrug resistant (MDR) typhoid fever has a varied diagnostic pattern and a higher rate of harmful impacts than regular typhoid fever (20%). The epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and current treatment trends for typhoid fever in children are discussed in this review article. Infections, relapsing, and typhoid fever were covered.


Ali A, Haque A, Sarwar Y. 2009. Multiplex PCR for differential diagnosis of emerging typhoidal pathogens directly from blood samples. Epidemiology and Infection journal 137, 102-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268808000654.

Antilln M, Warren JL, Crawford FW. 2017. The burden of typhoid fever in low-and middle-income countries: A metaregression approach. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11, e0005376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005376

Ayub U, Khattak AA, Saleem A, Javed F, Siddiqui N, Hussain N, Hayat A. 2015. Incidence of typhoid fever in Islamabad, Pakistan. American-Eurasian Journal of Toxicological Sciences 7, 220-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejts.2015.7.4.95188

Bhutta ZA. 2006. Current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of typhoid fever. PMC journal 333, 78-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.333.7558.78

Butt T, Ahmad RN, Mahmood A. 2003. Ciprofloxacin Treatment Failure in Typhoid Fever Case, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, 9, 1621-1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0912.030230

Camilo A, John Albert M, Zulfiqar B, Robert B. 2003. Background document: the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. World Health Organization. Department of Vaccines and Biologicals .Geneva, Switzerland p 19-23.

Chinh NT, Parry CM, Ly NT. 2000. A randomized controlled comparison of azithromycin and ofloxacin for treatment of multidrug-resistant or naldixic acid-resistant enteric fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.; Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44, 1855-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.44.7.1855-1859.2000

Christopher MP, Tran TH, Gordon DNJ. White JJ. 2003. Typhoid fever. The new England journal medicine.7th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, p 1247-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra020201

Colledge NR, Waller BR, Ralston BH. 2010.  Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine. 21st ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone p 334-5.

Colon AR, Gross DR, Tamer MA. 1975. Typhoid fever in children. Pediatrics, PMID: 1165964.

Connerton P, Wain J, Hien TT, Ali T, Parry CM, Chinh NT. 2000. Epidemic typhoid in Vietnam: molecular typing of multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhi from four outbreaks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 895-7.

Coulter JBS. 2003. Typhoid fever. In: McIntosh N, Helms P, Smyth R, Logans, eds. Forfar & Ameil’s text book of pediatrics. New York: Churchill Livingstone, p 1247-49.

Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. 2004. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ; Bulletain of the world health organization 82(5), 346-53. PMCID: PMC2622843.

Crump JA, Mintz ED. 2010. Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Clinical Infectious disease 50, 241-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.1086%2F649541

Crump JA. Luby SP, Mintz ED. 2004. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ 82, 346-353, PMID: 15298225 PMCID: PMC2622843.

Datta N, Richards H, Datta C. 1981. Salmonella typhi in vivo acquires resistance to both chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole. Lancet (London- England) 1(8231), 1181-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s01406736(81)92350-3.

Eng SK, Pusparajah P, Mutalib NS. 2015. Salmonella: a review on pathogenesis, epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Frontiers in Life Science 8, 284-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2015.1051243

Gal-Mor O. Boyle EC, Grassl GA. 2014. Same Species, Different Diseases: How and Why Typhoidal and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Enterica Serovars Differ. Front Microbiol Articles from Frontiers in Microbiology 5, 391.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00391

Gopalakrishnan V, Sekhar WY. Soo EH. Vinsent RA, Devi S. 2002. Typhoid Fever in Kuala Lumpur and a Comparative Evaluation of Two Commercial Diagnostic Kits for the Detection ofAntibodies to Salmonella typhi , Singapore Medicine  journal 43(7), 354-358.

Gunn JS, Marshall JM, Baker S. 2014. Salmonella chronic carriage: epidemiology, diagnosis, and gallbladder persistence. Trends in microbiology; 22, 648-655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2014.06.007

Gupta A. 1994. Multi-drug resistant typhoid fever in children epidemiology and therapeutic approach. Pediatr Infection Disease journal 13, 124-40.

Gupta MC, Mahajan BK. 2005. Text book of preventive and social medicine. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers p 202-5.

Haque A, Ahmed N, Peerzada A. 200. Utility of PCR in diagnosis of problematic cases of typhoid. Japanes of journal Infection and Disease 54, 237-9.

Khan AS, Murad AU, Ullah MF, Hossain MM. 2007. Prevalence of enteric fever among the children in a semi-urban area of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Medicine Journal 36(1), 7-11. https://doi.org/10.3329/jdmc.v20i1.8570

Khuri-Bulos N. 1981. Enteric Fevers in Children: The Importance of Age in the Varying Clinical Picture clinical pediatrics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000992288102000704.

Kidgell C, Reichard U, Wain J, Linz B, Torpdahl M, Dougan G. 2002. Salmonella typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is approximately 50,000 years old. Infection Genetic and Evolution; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1567-1348(02)00089-8.

Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. 2008. eds. Nelson’s text book of pediatrics. 18th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier Saunders;. p 1186-90.

Kohbata S, Yokoyama H, Yabuuchi E. 1986. Cytopathogenic effect of Salmonella typhi GIFU 10007 on M cells of murine ileal Peyer’s patches in ligated ileal loops: an ultrastructural study. Microbiology and Immunology 30(12), 1225-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.13480421.1986.tb03055.x

Kumara KA, Kumanan T, Selvaratnam G. 2008. Salmonella paratyphi A: A rare cause of infective spondylitis and psoas abscess. Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases, http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v3i1.4530

Levinson WE. 2008. Review of medical microbiology and immunology. 10th ed. New York: Lange; p 85-93.

Lianou A, Nychas GE, Koutsoumanis KP. 2017. Variability in the adaptive acid tolerance response phenotype of Salmonella enterica strains. Journal of Food Microbiology 62, 99-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2016.10.011

Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG. 2003. Principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases, 2nd ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone p, 830-5.

Mara D, Lane J, Scott B. 2010. Sanitation and health. PLoS medicine 7, e1000363. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.100363

Mathai E, John TJ, Rani M, Mathai D, Chacko N, Nath V, Cherian  AM. 1995. Significance of Salmonella typhi bacteriuria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33, 1791-1792.

McKendrick MW. 1998. Management of chickenpox in the adult: A review for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. the journal of infection. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0163-4453(98)80155-2.

Mirza SH, Hart C. 1993. Plasmid encoded multi-drug resistance in Salmonella typhi from Pakistan. Annal of Tropical Medicine Parasitology 87, 373-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00034983.1993.11812781

Morinigo MA, Muñoz MA, Martinez Manzanares E. 1993. Laboratory study of several enrichment broths for the detection of Salmonella spp. particularly in relation to water samples. The Journal Applied Bacteriololgy 74, 330-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.13652672.1993.tb03033.x

Morshed MG, Khan WA, Khan HZ, Akbar MS. 1986. Multiple drug resistant S. typhi in Bangladesh (letter). Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research 4, 24.

Moudgil KD, Narang BS.1985. Pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Indian Journal Podiatry 52(417), 371-8.

Naveed A, Ahmed Z. 2016. Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Children: Comparison of Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin with Ceftriaxone, European Scientific Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n6p346.

Nicki R, Colledge Stuart H, Ralston, Brian R Walker. 2010. Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine. 21st ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, p 334-5.

Ochiai RL, Acosta CJ, Danovaro-Holliday M. 2008. Study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls. Bulletin of the world health organization 86, 260-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/blt.06.039818.

Park K. 1999. Textbook of preventive and social medicine. 17th ed. Jabalpur, p 178-81. https://link.springer.com/journal/12098,

Parry CM, Hien TT. Dougan G, White NJ, Farrar JJ. 2002. Typhoid fever. New England journal medicine 50, 241-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra020201

Parry CM, Threlfall EJ. 2008. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonellae. Current Opinion Infectouse disease, https://doi.org/10.1097/qco.0b013e32830f453a

Raffatellu M, Wilson RP, Winter SE. 2008. Clinical pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Journal Infection Developing Countries 2, 260-266. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.219

Rahman M, Siddique AK, Tam FC, Sharmin S, Rashid H, Iqbal A. 2007. Rapid detection of early typhoid fever in endemic community children by the TUBEX 09-antibody test. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis.; 58(3), 275-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio. 01.010

Saha SK, Darmstadt GL, Baqui AH, Crook DW, Islam MN, Islam M. 2006. Molecular basis of resistant displayed by highly ciprofloxacin resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi in Bangladesh. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44(10), 3811-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01197-06.

Sharma KB, Bheem Bhat M, Paricha A, Vaze  S. 1979. Multiple antibiotic resistance among Salmonellae in India. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 5, 15-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/5.1.15

Sinha A, Sazwal S, Kumar R, Sood S, Reddaiah VP,  Singh B. 1999. Typhoid fever in children aged less than 5 years. Lancet (London – England) 354, 734-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(98)09001-1.

Sultana S, Al Maruf MA, Sultana R. Jahan S. 2016. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteric Fever: A Review Update. Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 3, 43-51.

Topley JM. 1986. Mild typhoid fever. Arch Dis Child.; Archives of disease in childhood, https://dx.doi.org/10.1136%2Fadc.61.2.164

Van de Vosse E, Ali S, de Visser  AW, Surjadi C, Widjaja  S, Vollaard AM, Van Dissel JT. 2005. Susceptibility to typhoid fever is associated with a polymorphism in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Human Genetic 118(1), 138-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-005-0005-0. Epub 2005 Oct 28

Wain J Bay PV, Vinh H, Duong NM, Diep TS, Walse AL. 2001. Quantitation of bacteria in bone marrow from patients with typhoid fever: relationship between counts and clinical features. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39, 1571-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.39.4.1571-1576.2001.

Winstaniey C Hart CA 2001. Secretin systems and pathogenicity islands. Journal Medicine of Microbiology 413, 848-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-50-2-116.

Woodward TE. Smadel JE, Ley HL, Jr, Green R, Mankikar DS. 1984. Preliminary report on the beneficial effect of chloromycetin in the treatment of typhoid fever. Annales of International Medicine 29, 131-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-29-1-131

Zaki SA, Karande S. 2011. Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever: a review. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 5, 324-337.

Zhou L, Pollard AJ. 2010. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobiology journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-9-14.

Zulfiqar A, Bhutta Shehla H, Naqvi Raza A. Razzaq Bdr J, Farooqui. 1991. Multidrug resistant typhoid in children: presentation and clinical features. Reviews of Infectious disease; https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/13.5.832