Understanding leaf Biochemical traits for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cultivars grown in chromium stressed Environment

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2016
Views (234) Download (18)

Understanding leaf Biochemical traits for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cultivars grown in chromium stressed Environment

Muhammad Imran Atta, Abdul Wahid, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Nauman Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad , Muhammad Ishtiaq
Int. J. Biosci.8( 2), 195-202, February 2016.
Certificate: IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Environmental pollution is big curse for plants, animals and other living organisms. Being atmospheric pollutant, different levels of Cr6+ (50-500mg/kg) were applied to sunflower plants to determine its toxic effects. It was found that there was imbalanced distribution of leaf nutrients. XRF studies for various elements revealed alteration in leaf appearance due to nutritional deficiency. Leaf protein was reduced and proline increased pretentiously (p≤0.05) along Cr concentration. Viability of Cr enriched plants strongly showed the environmental protective role of proline. Present study mainly expresses chromium metal toxicity for carbon and nitrogen metabolism predicting poor growth, biomass and yield attributes in Cr treated plants.


Adriano DC. 1986. Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. New York: Springer.

Ahmad M, Wahid A, Ahmad SS, Butt ZA, Tariq M. 2011. Ecophysiological responses of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to hexavalent chromium. Pakistan journal of Botany 43(6), 2853-2859.

Andaleeb F, Anjum FZ, Ashraf M, Mahmood Z. 2008. Effect of Chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Environmental Science 20(12), 1475-1480.

Atta MI, Bokhari TZ, Malik SA, Wahid A, Saeed S, Gulshan AB. 2013a. Assessing someemerging effects of hexavalent chromium on leaf physiological performance in sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.). International journal of Science and Engineering 4(8), 945- 949.

Atta  MI,  Bokhari  TZ,  Malik  SA,  Wahid  A, Saeed S. 2013b. Studying germination, growthand tolerance index of sunflower plants under hexavalent chromium stress along with role of soil nutrients. International journal of Agricultural Science  3(3), 211-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.9735/0975-3710

Bates LS, Waldren SP, Teare ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline forwater-stress studies. Plant Soil, 39, 205–207.

Bradford M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of micro gram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.

Cervantes C, Campos-Garcia J, Debars S, Gutierrez-Corona F, Loza-Tavera H, Carlos-Tarres-Guzman M, Moreno-Sanchez R. 2001. Interaction of chromium with Microgenesis and plants. FEMS Micrbiol. Rev., 25, 335-347.

Charest C, Phan CT. 1990. Cold acclimation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) properties of enzymes involved in proline metabolism. Physiologia Plantarum 80, 159–168.

Diwan H, Ahmad S, Iqbal M. 2012. Chromium induced alterations in photosynthesis and associated attributes in Indian mustard. Journal of Environmental Biology 33, 239-244.

Gardea-Torresdey JL, Rosa JR, Peralta-Videa M,Cruz-Jimenez CR, Cano Aguilera K. 2005. Differential uptake and transport of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by tumbleweed (Salsola kali). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 42, 225-232.

Goldin A. 1987. Reassessing the use of loss on ignition for estimating organic matter contents in non-calcarious soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 18, 1111-1116.

Konare H, Yost RS, Doumbia M, McCarty GW, Jarjuand A, Kablan R. 2010. Loss on ignition: Measuring soil organic carbon in soils of the Sahel, West Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research., 5(22), 3088-3095.

Najafian M, Kafilzadeh F, Azad HN,Tahery Y. 2012. Toxicity of chromium on growth, ions and some biochemical parameters of Brassica napus L. American-Eurasian J. Agric.& Environ. Sci., 12(2), 237-242.

Panichev N, Mandiwana K, Kataeva K, Siebert S. 2005. Determination of Cr (VI) in plants by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry after leaching with sodium carbonate. Spectro chimica Acta., Part B, 60, 699-703.

Rai UN, Tripathi RD, Kumar N. 1992. Bioaccumulation of chromium and toxicity on growth, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis, in vivo nitrate reductase activity and protein content in chlorococcalear green alga. Chromosphere., 25, 721-732.

Ryan J, Estfan G, Rashid A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory manual. Second edition. 87-89.

Sharma DC, Chatterjee C, Sharma CP. 1995. Chromium accumulation by barley seedlings (Hordeumvulgare L). Journal of experimental botany 25, 241-251.

Singh AK. 2001. Effect of trivalent and hexavalent chromium on spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) Environmental Ecology, 19, 807-810.

Singh AK, Misra P, Tandon PK. 2006. Phytotoxicity of chromium in paddy (Oryza sativa L.) plants. Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(2), 283-285.

Suwalsky M, Castro R, Villena F, Sotomayor CP. 2008. Cr (III) exerts stronger structural effects than Cr (VI) on human erythrocyte membrane and molecular modes. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 102, 842-849.

Turner MA, Rust RH. 1971. Effects of chromium on growth and mineral nutrition of soybeans. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35, 755-758.

Uchida R. 2000. Essential nutrients for plant growth: Nutrient Function and Deficiency Symptoms (Chapter-3). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Copy right, 2000.

Vazquez   MD,   Poschenrieder    C,   Barcelo    J. 1987. Chromium VI induced structural and ultrastructural changes in Bush bean plants. Annals of Bot. 59, 427-438.

Zayed AM, Terry N. 2003. Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation. Plant and soil. 249, 139-156.

Zengin FK, Munzuroglu O. 2005. Effects of some heavy metals on content of chlorophyll, proline and some antioxidant chemicals in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica 47(2), 157-16.