Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Vitamin A deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 infected and un-infected pregnant women in KPK, Pakistan

Research Paper | August 6, 2023

| Download 39

Saadia Roedar, Rubina Nazli, Jamila Haider, Falak Niaz, Sheraz Fazid, Nasheela kausar, Maryam Imran, Aziz Ur Rehman

Key Words:

Int. J. Biomol. & Biomed.17( 1), 1-7, August 2023


IJBB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in developing countries and a large number of pregnant women, especially in low-income communities, are more susceptible to VAD. This study aimed to report the baseline levels of Vitamin A in pregnant women with and without HIV-1 infection and to ascertain the association of CD4 + count and viral load with vitamin A deficiency. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which HIV-1 infected and uninfected pregnant women were recruited. 24hr Dietary recall data were obtained using Windiest software. CD4 T cell counts in HIV-1+ patients were measured using a Pima Analyzer. Serum Vitamin A levels were performed using Enzyme Linked immune-sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The mean age of the participants was 27.05± 5.98. The mean Vitamin A levels were 92.41±57.32, and the mean CD4+ count was 631.78±271.29. In the case and control groups, vitamin A levels showed a statistically significant difference (p =0.003). No significant correlation was observed among the VAD, viral load (P=0.79), and CD4+ count (P=0.84).  Conclusion: This study concluded that HIV-1-positive pregnant women often suffer from vitamin A insufficiency, and supplementation with vitamin A and other micronutrients is crucial for improving their health outcomes.


Copyright © 2023
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Vitamin A deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 infected and un-infected pregnant women in KPK, Pakistan

Ahmed F, Mahmuda I, Sattar A, Akhtaruzzaman M. 2003. Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh. Asia Pac J. Clin Nutr 12(4), 460-6.

Álvarez Barreneche MF, Restrepo Castro CA, Hidrón Botero A, Villa Franco JP, Trompa Romero IM, Restrepo Carvajal L. 2017; Hospitalization causes and outcomes in HIV patients in the late antiretroviral era in Colombia. AIDS Res Ther [Internet] 14(1), 60. DOI: https://doi.org /10.1186/s12981-017-0186-3

Alvarez-Uria G, Midde M, Pakam R, Bachu L, Naik PK. 2012. Effect of Formula Feeding and Breastfeeding on Child Growth, Infant Mortality, and HIV Transmission in Children Born to HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Who Received Triple Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited Setting: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in. ISRN Pediatr 2012, 763591.

Azaïs-Braesco V, Pascal G. 2000. Vitamin A in pregnancy: requirements and safety limits. Am J Clin Nutr 71(5 Suppl), 1325S-33S.

Burns DN, Nourjah P, Minkoff H, Korelitz J, Biggar RJ, Landesman S. 1996 Changes in CD4+ and CD8+ cell levels during pregnancy and post-partum in women seropositive and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus-1. Am J. Obstet Gynecol 174(5), 1461-8.

Friis H, Gomo E, Koestel P, Ndhlovu P, Nyazema N, Krarup H. 2001. HIV and other predictors of serum beta-carotene and retinol in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe. Am J. Clin Nutr 73(6), 1058-65.

Hu YC, Chen J, Li M, Wang R, Li WD, Yang YH. 2017 [Study on anemia and vitamin A and vitamin D nutritional status of Chinese urban pregnant women in 2010-2012]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 51(2), 125-31.

Imdad A, Mayo-Wilson E, Herzer K, Bhutta ZA. 2017. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet] 3(3), CD008524–CD008524.

Johnstone FD, Thong KJ, Bird AG, Whitelaw J. 1994. Lymphocyte subpopulations in early human pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology 83(6), 941-6.

Kæstel P, Martinussen T, Aaby P, Michaelsen KF, Friis H. 2012. Serum retinol is associated with stage of pregnancy and the acute phase response inpregnant women in Guinea-Bissau. J Nutr 142(5), 942-7.

Maan MA, Hussain F, Jamil M. 2014 Prevalence and risk factors of HIV in Faisalabad, Pakistan -A retrospective study. Pak J Med Sci 30(1), 32-5.

McGuire S, WHO Guideline. 2012. Vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Geneva: WHO, 2011; WHO Guideline: Vitamin A supplementation in postpartum women. Geneva: WHO, 2011. Advances in Nutrition 3(2), 215-6.

Ministry of Health Pakistan. Pakistan National Nutrition Survey. 2011. National Nutrition Survey [Internet]. 2012 1-84.

Mulu A, Kassu A, Huruy K, Tegene B, Yitayaw G, Nakamori M. 2011. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 11(1), 569.

NACP. Ministry of National Health Services. Regulation & Coordination. National AIDS Control Programme. Current statistics.

Niaz F, Faheem M, Khattak M, Khawaja IA, Ahn MJ, Sarker U, Jamal SB, Ullah R, Khalil AA. 2022. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Juglone Derivatives against Enterococcus faecalis: An In Silico and in vitro Approach. BioMed Research International.

Organization WH. 2009. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005: WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency.

Papathakis PC, Rollins NC, Chantry CJ, Bennish ML, Brown KH. 2007. Micronutrient status during lactation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African women during the first 6 mo after delivery. Am J. Clin Nutr 85(1), 182-92.

Phuapradit W, Panburana P, Jaovlsidha A, Puchaiwatananon O, Chantratita W, Bhodhiphala P. 2000. Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and serum vitamin A and E levels in HIV-1 infected pregnant women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 40(1), 78-80.

Raman L. 1991. Vitamin A during pregnancy in India: How much is safe for the fetus? The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 58(2), 179-83.

Semba RD, Caiaffa WT, Graham NM, Cohn S, Vlahov D. 1995. Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users. J. Infect Dis 171(5), 1196-202.

Stephensen CB, Alvarez JO, Kohatsu J, Hardmeier R, Kennedy JIJ, Gammon RBJ. 1994Vitamin A is excreted in the urine during acute infection. Am J. Clin Nutr 60(3), 388-92.

Stephensen CB. 2003. Vitamin A, beta-carotene, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Nutr Rev 61(8), 280-4.

Suri DJ, Wirth JP, Adu-Afarwuah S, Petry N, Rohner F, Sheftel J. 2021 Inflammation Adjustments to Serum Retinol and Retinol-Binding Protein Improve Specificity but Reduce Sensitivity when Estimating Vitamin A Deficiency Compared with the Modified Relative Dose-Response Test in Ghanaian Children. Curr Dev Nutr 5(8). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab098

Unicef. National Nutrition Survey. 2018. Key Findings Report. Nutrition wing Ministry of health services, regulation and coordination, Government of Pakistan, ed. 2019.

Zanotti G, Berni R. 2004. Plasma retinol-binding protein: structure and interactions with retinol, retinoids,and transthyretin. Vitam Horm 69, 271-95.