Int. J. Biosci.3( 9), 102-108, September 2013
Vitamin D is one of the fat soluble vitamins which increase the intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorous. Vitamin D is necessary for maintenance, growth, and development of healthy skeleton from birth to death. The present cross sectional study was carried out in which 260 females, randomly selected from the Diabetes and Endocrinology, Medical and Orthopedics outpatient setting (OPDs) of Hayatabad Medical Complex Hospital Peshawar who were enrolled in March 2012 to February 2013. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] were measured by CMIA immunoassay. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was derived from interview-administered questionnaires. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. The mean serum 25(OH) D concentration was 14.45ng/mL. Only 5% of the population had 25(OH) D level was normal (40-1001ng/mL) while 95% of the population had vitamin deficiency (<40 ng/mL), but the prevalence of vitamin D severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 46%, 34% had moderate deficiency levels (10-20 nmol/mL), while 13% had hypovitaminosis (20-40ng/mL). Those female who were at risk had peak vitamin D deficiency included young female (10.83ng/mL), aged (12.53ng/mL), unmarried (13.13ng/mL), pregnant women (13.70ng/mL), high level of education (12.77 ng/mL), work in office 12.10ng/mL, middle socio economic background (14.04ng/mL), poor nutrition (13.17ng/mL), use of sunscreen (11.06ng/mL), not exposure to sunlight (4.37ng/mL), closed houses (14.53ng/mL), white skin colour (12.92ng/mL), musculoskeletal pain (14.43ng/mL), early fatigue (13.99ng/mL), obesity (13.61ng/mL), Diabetes mellitus (13.55ng/mL), Cardiovascular disease (12.87ng/mL) and Asthma (11.41ng/mL).
Atiq M, Suria A, Nizami SQ, Ahmed I. 1998. Maternal vitamin D deficiency in Pakistan. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 77(10), 970–973.
Barake R, Weiler H, Payette H, Gray-Donald K. 2010. Vitamin D Status in Healthy Free-Living Elderly Men and Women Living in Que´bec, Canada. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 29(1), 25–30.
Evatt ML, Delong MR, Kumari M, Auinger P, Mcdermott MP, Tangpricha V. 2011. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D status in patients with early Parkinson disease. Archives of Neurology 68(3), 314-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2011.30.2
Eyles DW, Feron F, Cui X, Kesby JP, Harms LH, Ko P, Mcgrath JJ, Burne THJ. 2009. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34S, S247—S257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.04.015
Flynn L, Zimmerman LH, Mcnorton K, Dolman M, Tyburski J, Wilson, Baylor A, Wilson R, Dolman H. 2012. Effects of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill surgical patients. The American Journal of Surgery 203, 379–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2011.09.012
Holick MF. 2003. Vitamin D: a millennium perspective. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 88, 296–307.
Holick MF. 2007. Vitamin D deficiency. The New England Journal of Medecine 357, 266-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra070553
Holick MF, Chen TC. 2008. Vitamin D deficiency a worldwide problem with health consequences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, 1080S– 6S.
Jan A, Haq I, Haq I, Mustaan S. 2011. Assessment of children with rickets at saidu teaching hospital swat. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences 9(2), 212-215.
Karim SA, Nusrat U, Aziz. 2011. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their newborns as seen at a tertiary-care center in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 112, 59–62. http://dx.doi.10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.07.034
Lips P. 2001. Vitamin D Deficiency and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in the Elderly: Consequences for Bone Loss and Fractures and Therapeutic Implications. Endocrine Reviews 22, 477–501.
Lowe NM, Ellahi B, Bano Q, Bangash SA, Mitra SR, Zaman M. 2006. Dietary Calcium Intake, Vitamin D Status, and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women in Rural Pakistan. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 116 (8), 2062– 2072.
Lowe NM, Ellahi B, Bano Q, Bangash SA, Mitra SR, Zaman M. 2011. Dietary Calcium Intake, Vitamin D Status, and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women in Rural Pakistan. Journal of Helth, Population and Nutrition 29(5), 465-470.
Mealy MA. 2011. Vitamin D level versus of Neurology. ScienceDaily. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2011.1974
Shakiba M, Nafei Z, Lotfi MH, Shajari A. 2009. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Female Students in Secondary Guidance School in Yazd City. Acta Medica Iranica 47(3), 209-214.
Zuberi LM, Habib A, Haque N, Jabbar A. 2008. Vitamin D Deficiency in Ambulatory patients. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 58, 482.