Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Review Paper | October 1, 2011

| Download

Waste and by-products of cocoa in breeding: Research synthesis

Bouafou Kouamé Guy Marcel, Konan Brou André, Dally Théodore, Kati-Coulibally Séraphin

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.1(1), 9-19, October 2011


IJAAR 2011 [Generate Certificate]


This review aims to show the potential nutritional waste and by-products of cocoa in animals through scientific studies. Indeed, research indicates that the waste and by-products generally contain cocoa 12-17% protein, major minerals (Ca, P, K, Na) and fibers that predispose them to feed. Tested in ruminants, chickens, snails, pigs and rabbits, they have been beneficial to low levels. Because these foods contain theobromine, antintritionnel factor, witch limits their use in livestock. However, appropriate treatments can help to increase the quantities of waste and by-products of cocoa in animal diets.


Copyright © 2011
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Waste and by-products of cocoa in breeding: Research synthesis

Adeyina AO, Apata DF, Annongu AA, Olatunde O.A., Alli OI, Okupke KM. 2010. Performance and physiological response of weaner rabbits fed hot Water treated cocoa bean shell based diet. Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 5, 53-57.

Alba J, Garcia H, Cano FP, Ullca G. 1954. Valor nutritivo de cacao para la produccion de leche en comparacion con maiz molido e harina de yuca, Turrialba 4, 29-34.

Alexander J, Benford D, Cockburn A, Cravedi JP, Dogliotti E. 2008. Theobromine as undesirable substances in animal feed Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain. The EFSA Journal 725, 1-66.

Aregheore E M. 2002. Chemical evaluation and digestibility of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) by-products fed to goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34, 339-348.

Aregheore EM. 2011. Chemical evaluation and digestibility of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) by products fed to goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34, 339-348.

Abiola SS, Tewe OO. 1991. Chemical evaluation of cocoa by product. Tropical Agriculture 68, 335-336.

Alemawor F, Dzogbefia VP, Emmanuel O, Oddoye K, Oldham JH. 2009. Enzyme cocktail for enhancing poultry utilization of cocoa pod husk. Scientific Research and Essay 4, 555-559.

Barnes AR, Amega WK, Manu M, Rhule T. 1984. Utilization of cocoa husk meal by growing-finishing pigs. In: Proceedings of the 9th International, ed. Cocoa Research Conference, Lomé, Togo: Cocoa Producers Alliances: 449-454.

Close WH. 1993. Fibrous diets for pigs. In: Gill M, Owen E, Pollott G E, Lawrence T L J, ed. Occasional Publications. London, UK: British Society of Animal Production 16, 107-117.

Ayinde OE, Ojo V, Adeyina AA, Adesoye O. 2010. Economics of using cocoa bean shell as feed supplement for rabbits. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9, 195-197.

Day EJ, Dilworth BC. 1984. Toxicity of jimson weed seed and cocoa shell meal to broilers. Poultry Science 63, 466-8.

Mahyuddin P. 1995. The Nutritive value of cocoa shell in ruminants. Bulletin of Animal Science (Special Edition).

Donkoh A, Atuahene CC, Wilson BN, Adomako D. 1991. Chemical composition of cocoa pod husk and its effect on growth and food efficiency in broiler chicks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 35,161-169.

Edet EA, Ibok IU, Edward AC. 2010. Evaluation of protein quality of raw and roasted cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) using weanling albino rats. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment 6, 90-93.

Ekwe, OO, Osakwe II, Nweze BO. 2011. The effect of replacing maize with cassava “sievate” using banana leaves as basal forage in the diet of weaned rabbit. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences 4, 51-58.

Eleojo BM, Eteng MU, Omale J, Olajide JE. 2004. Effect of theobromine on serum total protein, albumin, iron and transferrin in albino rats. Biokemistri 16, 102-105.

Fao. 2002. Animal Feed Resources Information System. Tropical feeds: 76-82.

Hamzat RA, Adejinmi OO, Babatunde BB, Adejuma MO. 2007. Evaluation of cocoa shell as a feed ingredient for rabbit. African Crop Sciences Conference Proceedings 8, 583-584.

Kass ML, Van Soest PJ, Pond WG, Lewis B, McDowell RE. 1980. Utilization of dietary fiber from alfalfa by growing swine. I. Apparent digestibility of diet components in specific segments of gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Animal Science 50, 175-181.

Lecumberri E, Luis G, Raquel M, Mario A, Sonia R, Izquierdo-Pulido M, Bravo L. 2007. A diet rich in dietary fiber from cocoa improves lipid profile and reduces malondialdehyde in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition 23, 332–341.

Lyayi E A, Olubamiwa O, Ayuk A, Orowvegodo S, Ogunaike EF. 2001. Utilization of urea treated and untreated cocoa pod husk based diets by growing pigs: an on-farm study. Tropicultura 19, 101-104.

Marsetyo TS, Quigley SP, Poppi DP. 2008. The Effect of Treatment of Cocoa-pods with Aspergillus niger on intake and liveweight gain of Bali (Bos sondaicus) Cattle in South East Sulawesi. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 27, 57.

Meffeja F, Njifutié N, Manjeli Y, Dongmo T, Tchakounté J, Fombad RB. 2006. Digestibilité et influence des rations contenant des niveaux croissants de coques de cacao sur les performances des porcs en croissance finition. Livestock Research for Rural Development 18, 111.

Ndindana W, Dzama K, Ndiweni PNB, Maswaure SM, Chimonyo M. 2002. Digestibility of high fibre diets and performance of growing zimbabwean indigenous Mukota pigs and exotic Large White pigs fed maize based diets with graded levels of maize cobs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 97,199-208.

Noblet J, Bontems V and Tran G. 2003. Estimation de la valeur énergétique des aliments pour le porc. INRA Productions Animales 16, 197-210.

Ogunsipe MH, Agbede JO. 2010. The replacement value of unripe plantain peels on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and cost implications of rabbit production in the tropical region. Researcher 2, 24-29.

Olubamiwa O, Ikyo SM, Adebowale BA, Omojola AB, Hamzat RA. 2006. Effect of boiling time on the Utilization of cocoa bean shell in laying hen feeds. International Journal of Poultry Science 5, 1137-1139.

Omosulis V, Ibrahim TA, Oloye DA, Aladekoyi G, Ogundowole O. 2011. Functional properties of roasted and defatted cashew nut (anarcadium occidentale) flour. Electronic journal of Environmental Agricultural and food Chemistry 10, 2135-2138.

Ottou BJF. 1982. Utilization of Agro-industrial by-products in animal feeding: substitution of 0, 40, 50, 60% of cocoa husk for maize in broiler diets. Memoire presented at the National Advanced School of Agriculture, for the diploma of “Ingénieur Agronome”, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 1-54.

Owosibo O, Hamzat RA, Raji AM, Fasoyiro SB, Obisesan LO. 2008. Effect of replacement of cocoa bean shell for maize on growth, carcass characteristics and organoleptic properties of growing snail (Archachatina marginata). Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 1, 84-86.

Oyedapo AF. 1988. Evaluation of defatted cocoa cake as a direct feed in the monosex culture of Tilapia guineensis. Aquaculture, 73, 201-206.

Ranjhan SK. 1981. Animal nutrition in tropics, Second Revised Edition, Vikas Publishing House, PVT LTD, 480 p.

Sampath SR, Kumar MNA, Sundareshan K. 1990. Evaluation of cocoa bean by product for ruminant feeding. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 7, 45-48.

Smith OB, Adegbola AA. 1985. Studies on the feeding value of agro-industrial by-products. III. Digestibility of cocoa-pod and cocoa-pod-based diets by ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 13, 249-254.

Sobamiwa O, Longe OG. 1994. The nutritive value of alkali-treated cocoa husk meal in broiler chick diets. Animal Feed Sciences and Technology 46,321-330.

Teguia  A,  Endeley  HNL,  Beynen  AC.  2004. Broiler performance upon dietary substitution of cocoa husks for maize. International Journal of Poultry Science 3, 779-782.

Trease GE, Evans CE. 1972. Pharmacognosy, 10th edition. Williams and Wilkins co., Baltimore, MD, 502p.

Wallace PA, Adu EK, Rhule SWA. 2010. Optimal storage conditions for cocoa cake with shell, palm kernel cake and copra cake as poultry and livestock feed in Ghana. Livestock Research for Rural Development 22, 2.

World cocoa foundation. 2010. In: Faostat, cocoa market update. Published repports and ressources ed. Washington DC, USA, 1-6.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background