Water pollution has different factors

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Research Paper 01/12/2021
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Water pollution has different factors

Sehar Anwer, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Abdul Wadood, Imran Taj, Zohra Samreen, Ashiq Hussain, Umbreen Zafar, Zain-Ul-Abideen, Sakina Khan, Reema Samina Khan
Int. J. Biosci.19( 5), 44-51, December 2021.
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Abstract

Water is an essential element for the preservation of life on earth. Maintaining the food chains and humanizing the living standards are closely connected to fresh and clean water accessibility. Currently, there is an approximation that one-fifth of the world’s population (nearly 1.2 billion people) lack access to clean water and furthermore, it is estimated by the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report that 2.6 billion people lack access to sufficient sanitation. Water pollution is one of the major and serious threats to public health as drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored throughout the world. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Industrial and chemical pollutants affect soil pH, which is one of the most important factors affecting the growth and health of flora on earth. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. Water pollution causes the majority of the diseases in humans. Hence pollution is the main factor in producing a self-perpetuating circle of disease and low productivity, increased poverty and more spread of diseases. Pollutants are of various types as bacteria, virii, worms, parasites, acids, metals, toxins, plastics, pesticides and fertilizers. The pollutants, ultimately through various channels, reach into water channels; pounds, rivers, and oceans. These also seep into the earth and reach the water table. Water pollution causes diseases in humans like dysentery, gastroenteritis, food poising, viral hepatitis of all kinds, helminthiasis, retarded growth in children, various types of kidney problems due to dehydration from simple weakness to renal failure. According to World Health Organization (WHO), waterborne diarrheal diseases are responsible for over 2 million deaths annually across the world, with the majority occurring in children under 5 years.

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