Water Quality of Major Freshwater Sources in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 05/06/2023
Views (1174) Download (132)

Water Quality of Major Freshwater Sources in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Ronnie L. Besagas, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Girlie D. Leopoldo, Noel T. Dael, and Antonio Y. Asoy
Int. J. Biosci.22( 6), 13-18, June 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


This presents the results of the study that tested the water from two sources in Cagayan de Oro City: a deep well in Macasandig and the Bubunawan River. The study evaluated the water’s physico-chemical characteristics, heavy metal content, and microbiological quality. For the deep well water, the physico-chemical characteristics met all standards and were deemed aesthetically pleasing. The water had low levels of heavy metals and other metals, except for antimony, which, while within Philippine and WHO standards, may exceed the limits set by the USA and EU due to a higher detection limit. The Bubunawan River water had good physico-chemical characteristics and low heavy metal levels, except for antimony, which was below the Philippine standard but may not meet the USA and EU standards. The water’s microbiological quality was also poor, failing tests for total coliform and E. coli. Chlorination by the water treatment plant was effective in addressing this issue. The Bubunawan River water was less mineralized than the deep well water but had higher turbidity, which may affect its clarity and transparency. Additionally, the river water had a higher aluminum content, which was approaching the standard limit. Further investigation and monitoring may be necessary to ensure that the aluminum levels do not exceed the allowable limit. Overall, the study highlights the importance of proper disinfection procedures to address microbial issues in both water sources. The study also suggests ongoing monitoring to ensure the water meets acceptable standards and that any potential issues are identified and addressed promptly.


Besagas RL. 2017. The Heavy Metals and Microbiological Profiles of the Major Drinking Water Supply System of Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. International Journal of Biosciences 20(3), 154-160

Liyanage C, Yamada K. 2017. Impact of population growth on the water quality of natural water bodies. Sustainability 9(8), 1405.

Miller GT. 2000. Living in the Environment, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 20 Davis Drive, Belmont CA 94002-3098, USA.

PCARRD. 1991. Standard Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant Tissue, Water and Fertilizer. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

Soh Y, Roddick F, Leeuwen J. 2008. The future of water in Australia: The potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on Australian water quality, quantity and treatability, from http://www.search.proquest.com/pqcentral/docview/22171507/A18A3C21F87D4ODAPQ/3?accountid=141440

USGS. 2014. How much water is there on, in, and above the earth? From http://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html.

Wetzel RG. 2001. Limnology – Lake and River Ecosystems 3rd Ed. San Diego. Academic Press.