Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Review Paper | May 1, 2019

| Download 10

Why Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae is used as a screening system for nanomaterials? The science of procedure and nano-toxicology: A review

Wali Muhammad, Naimat Ullah, Mehmand Khan, Waqar Ahmad, Muhammad Qasim Khan, Bilal Haider Abbasi

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.14(5), 156-176, May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.5.156-176


IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Numerous creative key innovations in the field of nanotechnology have turned the minds of scientists to explore new possibilities in diagnosis and treatment of incipient diseases. Nanotoxicity, the sector of vigorous research, has emerged the increased use of nanoparticles mainly in commercially available products. The risk factors of nanomaterials are still unknown. For this purpose, extensive procedures were used to carry out the toxic effects of these nanomaterials. Recently, many researchers have focused on brine shrimp lethality assay owing to their low cost, convenience, and rapid screening procedure. The species of Brine shrimp, Artemia salina is commonly used nowadays in drug discovery to screen the toxic effect of different components. The current review article is focused to elucidate the cytotoxic approach of nanomaterials towards Brine shrimp (Artemia salina), their mechanistic perspective, procedure and why scientists use it as a screening system with possible future prospects.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Why Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae is used as a screening system for nanomaterials? The science of procedure and nano-toxicology: A review

Abreu AS, Castanheira EM, Queiroz M-JR, Ferreira PM, Vale-Silva LA, Pinto E. 2011. “Nanoliposomes for encapsulation and delivery of the potential antitumoral methyl 6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1 H-indole-2-carboxylate.” Nanoscale research letters 6(1), 482. https://doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-6-482

Ahuja T, Kumar D. 2009.“Recent progress in the development of nano-structured conducting polymers/nanocomposites for sensor applications.” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 136(1), 275-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2008.09.014

Allo BA, Costa DO, Dixon SJ, Mequanint K, Rizkalla AS. 2012.“Bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposites and hybrid biomaterials for bone regeneration.” Journal of functional biomaterials 3(2), 432-463. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb3020432

Anand K, Tiloke C, Phulukdaree A, Ranjan B, Chuturgoon A, Singh S, Gengan RM. 2016. “Biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by using Moringa oleifera flower extract and their catalytic andbiological properties.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 165, 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.039

Anastas PT, Warner JC. 2000.“Green chemistry: theory and practice.” Oxford university press.

Anwar A, Ovais M, Khan A, Raza A. 2017.“Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a novel drug delivery system.” IET Nanobiotechnology 11(6), 621-629. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0001

Arokiyaraj S, Vincent S, Saravanan M, Lee Y, Oh YK, Kim KH. 2017.“Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rheum palmatum root extract and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.” Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology 45(2), 372-379. https://doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2016.1160403

Arulvasu C, Jennifer SM, Prabhu D, Chandhirasekar D. 2014.“Toxicity effect of silver nanoparticles in brine shrimp Artemia.” The Scientific World Journal 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/256919

Ates M, Daniels J, Arslan Z, Farah IO, Rivera HF. 2013.“Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 15(1), 225-233. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2EM30540B

Ates M, Demir V, Arslan Z, Camas M, Celik F. 2016.“Toxicity of engineered nickel oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles to Artemia salina in seawater.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 227(3), 70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-2771-9

Balalakshmi C, Gopinath K, Govindarajan M, Lokesh R, Arumugam A, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM, Benelli G. 2017.“Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a cheap Sphaeranthus indicus extract: impact on plant cells and the aquatic crustacean Artemia nauplii.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 173, 598-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.06.040

Bali R, Razak N, Lumb A, Harris A. 2016. “The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles inside live plants; in: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2006 ICONN’06 International Conference on. IEEE.”

Balkrishna A, Sharma N, Sharma VK, Mishra ND, Joshi CS. 2017.“Green synthesis, characterisation and biological studies of AgNPs prepared using Shivlingi (Bryonia laciniosa) seed extract.” IET Nanobiotechnology 12(3), 371-375. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0099

Bar H, Bhui DK, Sahoo GP, Sarkar P, De SP, Misra A. 2009.“Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using latex of Jatropha curcas.” Colloids and surfaces A: Physicochemical and engineering aspects 339(1-3), 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.02.008

Barahona M, Sanchez-Fortun S. 1999.“Toxicity of carbamates to the brine shrimp Artemia salina and the effect of atropine, BW284c51, iso-OMPA and 2-PAM on carbaryl toxicity.” Environmental Pollution 104(3), 469-476. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(98)00152-3

Bergami E, Bocci E, Vannuccini ML, Monopoli M, Salvati A, Dawson KA, Corsi I. 2016.“Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.” Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 123, 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.021

Bhainsa KC, D’souza S. 2006.“Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.” Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 47(2), 160-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2005.11.026

Chaudhary UB, Haldas JR. 2003.“Long-term complications of chemotherapy for germ cell tumours.” Drugs 63(15), 1565-1577.

Chauhan RP, Gupta C, Prakash D. 2012.“Methodological advancements in green nanotechnology and their applications in biological synthesis of herbal nanoparticles.” International Journal of Bioassays 1, 6-10.

Corr SA, Rakovich YP, Gun’ko YK. 2008.“Multifunctional magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites for biomedical applications.” Nanoscale Research Letters3(3), 87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11671-008-9122-8

Costa-Lotufo LV, Khan MTH, Ather A, Wilke DV, Jimenez PC, Pessoa C, de Moraes MEA, de Moraes MO. 2005.“Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 99(1), 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.041

Dağlioğlu Y, Altinok İ, İlhan H, Sokmen M. 2016.“Determination of the acute toxic effect of ZnO-TiO2 nanoparticles in brine shrimp (Artemia salina).” Acta Biologica Turcica 29(1), 6-13.

Dağlıoğlu Y, Çelebi MS. 2015.“The evaluation of the acute toxic effects of polyvinylferrocenium supported platinum nanoparticles on Artemia salina (Brine shrimp).” Biological Diversity and Conservation,1308-8084.

Daniel M-C, Astruc D. 2004.“Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology.” Chemical reviews 104(1), 293-346. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr030698+

De Azeredo HM. 2009.“Nanocomposites for food packaging applications.” Food research international 42(9), 1240-1253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.03.019

De M, Ghosh PS, Rotello VM. 2008.“Applications of nanoparticles in biology.” Advanced Materials 20(22), 4225-4241. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200703183

Decker T, Lohmann-Matthes ML. 1998.“A quick and simple method for the quantitation of lactate dehydrogenase release in measurements of cellular cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity.” Journal of immunological methods 115(1), 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(88)90310-9

Dillon A, Mahan A, Deshpande R, Alleman J, Blackburn J, Parillia P, Heben M, Engtrakul C, Gilbert K, Jones KM. 2006.“Hot-wire chemical vapor synthesis for a variety of nano-materials with novel applications.” Thin Solid Films 501(1-2), 216-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.07.182

Dinesh M, Roopan SM, Selvaraj CI, Arunachalam P. 2017.“Phyllanthus emblica seed extract mediated synthesis of PdNPs against antibacterial, heamolytic and cytotoxic studies.” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 167, 64-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.12.012

Ejaz K, Sadia H, Zia G, Nazir S, Raza A, Ali S, Iqbal T, Andleeb S. 2017.“Biofilm reduction, cell proliferation, anthelmintic and cytotoxicity effect of green synthesised silver nanoparticle using Artemisia vulgaris extract.” IET Nanobiotechnology 12(1), 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0096

Emmanuel R, Palanisamy S, Chen S-M, Chelladurai K, Padmavathy S, Saravanan M, Prakash P, Ali MA, Al-Hemaid FM. 2015.“Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.” Materials Science and Engineering: C 56, 374-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.033

Esteban-Cubillo A, Pecharromán C, Aguilar E, Santarén J, Moya JS. 2006.“Antibacterial activity of copper monodispersed nanoparticles into sepiolite.” Journal of Materials Science 41(16), 5208-5212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0432-x

Gambardella C, Mesarič T, Milivojević T, Sepčić K, Gallus L, Carbone S, Ferrando S, Faimali M. 2014.“Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.” Environmental monitoring and assessment 186(7), 4249-4259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3695-8

Gleiter H. 1992.“Materials with ultrafine microstructures: retrospectives and perspectives.” Nanostructured materials 1, 1-19.

Gonzales M, Mitsumori LM, Kushleika JV, Rosenfeld ME, Krishnan KM. 2010.“Cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles made from the thermal decomposition of organometallics and aqueous phase transfer with Pluronic F127.” Contrast media & molecular imaging 5(5), 286-293. https://doi.org/10.1002/cmmi.391

Hayes A, Bakand S, Joeng L, Winder C. 2008.“In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of selected nanoparticles using human skin fibroblasts.”

Huang H, Yan F, Kek Y, Chew C, Xu G, Ji W, Oh P, Tang S. 1997.“Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles.” Langmuir 13(2), 172-175. https://doi.org/10.1021/la9605495

Hussain F, Hojjati M, Okamoto M, Gorga RE. 2006.“Polymer-matrix nanocomposites, processing, manufacturing, and application: an overview.” Journal of composite materials 40(17), 1511-1575. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998306067321

Islam MT, Streck L, de Alencar MVOB, Silva SWC, da Conceição Machado K, da Conceição Machado K, Júnior ALG, Paz MFCJ, da Mata AMOF, Sousa JMdC. 2017.“Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of phytol and its nanoemulsion.” Chemosphere 177, 93-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.145

Jain D, Daima HK, Kachhwaha S, Kothari S. 2009. “Synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using papaya fruit extract and evaluation of their anti microbial activities.” Digest journal of nanomaterials and biostructures 4(3), 557-563.

Jain KK. 2008.“Nanomedicine: application of nanobiotechnology in medical practice.” Medical Principles and Practice 17(2), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1159/000112961

Janafi NR, Wangl ZL, Sau TK. 2000.“Seed-mediated growth method to prepare cubic copper nanoparticles.” Current Science 79(9), 1367-1369.

Joerger R, Klaus T, Granqvist C. 2000. “Biologically Produced Silver–Carbon Composite Materials for Optically Functional Thin‐Film Coatings.” Advanced Materials 12(6), 407-409. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521

Kamigaito O. 1991.“What can be improved by nanometer composites?” Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy 38(3), 315-321. https://doi.org/10.2497/jjspm.38.315

Kapoor S, Mukherjee T. 2003.“Photochemical formation of copper nanoparticles in poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone).” Chemical physics letters 370(1-2), 83-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(03)00073-3

Karthikeyan B, Loganathan B.2012.“Strategic green synthesis and characterization of Au/Pt/Ag trimetallic nanocomposites.” Materials Letters 85, 53-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2012.06.070

Khalil AT, Ovais M, Ullah I, Ali M, Shinwari ZK, Hassan D, Maaza M. 2017a.“Sageretia thea (Osbeck.) modulated biosynthesis of NiO nanoparticles and their in vitro pharmacognostic, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential.” Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology 46(4), 838-852.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1345928

Khalil AT, Ovais M, Ullah I, Ali M, Shinwari ZK, Khamlich S, Maaza M. 2017b.“Sageretia thea (Osbeck.) mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its biological applications.” Nanomedicine 12(15), 1767-1789. https://doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2017-0124

Khalil AT, Ovais M, Ullah I, Ali M, Shinwari ZK, Maaza M. 2017c.“Physical properties, biological applications and biocompatibility studies on biosynthesized single phase cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles via Sageretia thea (Osbeck.).” Arabian Journal of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.07.004

Khan I, Saeed K, Khan I. 2017.“Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities.” Arabian Journal of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011

Khan T, Khan MA, Nadhman A. 2015.“Synthesis in plants and plant extracts of silver nanoparticles with potent antimicrobial properties: current status and future prospects.”Applied microbiology and biotechnology 99(23), 9923-9934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6987-1

Kharissova OV, Dias HR, Kharisov BI, Pérez BO, Pérez VMJ. 2013.“The greener synthesis of nanoparticles.” Trends in biotechnology 31(4), 240-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2013.01.003

Khosravi-Darani K, Mozafari M. 2010.Nanoliposome potentials in nanotherapy: A concise overview.” International Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 6(1), 3-13.

Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist CG. 1999.“Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96(24), 13611-13614. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.24.13611

Klefenz H. 2004.“Nanobiotechnology: from molecules to systems.” Engineering in life sciences 4(3), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.200402090

Korzeniewski C, Callewaert DM. 1983.“An enzyme-release assay for natural cytotoxicity.” Journal of immunological methods 64(3), 313-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(83)90438-6

Kumar D, Roy R, Parashar A, Raichur AM, Chandrasekaran N, Mukherjee A, Mukherjee A. 2017. “Toxicity assessment of zero valent iron nanoparticles on Artemia salina.” Environmental toxicology 32(5), 1617-1627. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.22389

Kumar V, Yadav SK. 2009.“Plant‐mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their applications.” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 84(2), 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.2023

Li X, Xu H, Chen ZS, Chen G. 2011.“Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms and their applications.” Journal of Nanomaterials 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/270974

Lisiecki I, Pileni MP. 1993.“Synthesis of copper metallic clusters using reverse micelles as microreactors.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 115(10), 3887-3896. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00063a00

Liu J, Qiao SZ, Hu QH, Lu GQ. 2011.“Magnetic nanocomposites with mesoporous structures: synthesis and applications.” small 7(4), 425-443. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201001402

Madhav M, David SEM, Kumar RS, Swathy J, Bhuvaneshwari M, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. 2017. “Toxicity and accumulation of Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in different life stages of Artemia salina.” Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 52, 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.03.013

Manjili HK, Jafari H, Ramazani A, Davoudi N. 2012.“Anti-leishmanial and toxicity activities of some selected Iranian medicinal plants.” Parasitology research 111(5), 2115-2121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3059-7

Marimuthu Alias Antonysamy J, Thangiah S, Irulappan R. 2015.“Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Dictyota bartayresiana JV Lamouroux and their Cytotoxic Potentials.” International Biological and Biomedical Journal 1(3), 112-118.

Martı́nez M, Del Ramo J, Torreblanca A, Dı́az-Mayans J. 1999.“Effect of cadmium exposure on zinc levels in the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica.” Aquaculture 172(3-4), 315-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00431-1

Maurer-Jones MA, Love SA, Meierhofer S, Marquis BJ, Liu Z, Haynes CL. 2013.“Toxicity of nanoparticles to brine shrimp: An introduction to nanotoxicity and interdisciplinary science.” Journal of Chemical Education 90(4), 475-478. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed3005424

Mclaughlin JL, Rogers LL, Anderson JE. 1998.“The use of biological assays to evaluate botanicals.” Drug information journal 32(2), 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1177/009286159803200223

Michael A, Thompson C, Abramovitz M. 1956.“Artemia salina as a Test Organism for Bioassay.” Science (New York, NY) 123(3194), 464-464. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.123.3194.464

Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC. 2013.“Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts.” Biotechnology advances 31(2), 346-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.01.003

Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK. 2008.“Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research 10(3), 507-517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-007-9275-x

Mott D, Galkowski J, Wang L, Luo J, Zhong CJ. 2007.“Synthesis of size-controlled and shaped copper nanoparticles.” Langmuir 23(10), 5740-5745. https://doi.org/10.1021/la0635092

Muhammad W, Haroon M, Shah M, Ullah MA, Haleem I. 2018.“Potential Application of Nanotechnology in Health Care: An Insight.” Nanoscale Reports 1(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.26524/nr1821

Muthukrishnan S, Kumar TS, Rao M. 2017.“Anticancer activity of biogenic nanosilver and its toxicity assessment on Artemia salina-evaluation of mortality, accumulation and elimination: An experimental report.” Journal of environmental chemical engineering 5(2), 1685-1695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.03.004

Nair B, Pradeep T. 2002.“Coalescence of nanoclusters and formation of submicron crystallites assisted by Lactobacillus strains.” Crystal Growth & Design 2(4), 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1021/cg0255164

Narayanan KB, Sakthivel N. 2011.“Green synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles by terrestrial and aquatic phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents.” Advances in colloid and interface science 169(2), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2011.08.004

Ochekpe NA, Olorunfemi PO, Ngwuluka NC. 2009.“Nanotechnology and drug delivery part 2: nanostructures for drug delivery.” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v8i3.44547

Ovais M, Nadhman A, Khalil AT, Raza A, Khuda F, Sohail MF, Islam NU, Sarwar HS, Shahnaz G, Ahmad I. 2017.“Biosynthesized colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles as emerging leishmanicidal agents: an insight.” Nanomedicine 12(24), 2807-2819. https://doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2017-0233

Ozkan Y, Altinok I, Ilhan H, Sokmen M. 2016.“Determination of TiO 2 and AgTiO 2 nanoparticles in Artemia salina: toxicity, morphological changes, uptake and depuration.” Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 96(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1634-1

Panigrahi S, Kundu S, Ghosh SK, Nath S, Praharaj S, Basu S, Pal T. 2006.“Selective one-pot synthesis of copper nanorods under surfactantless condition.” Polyhedron 25(5), 1263-1269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2005.09.006

Parashar UK, Saxena PS, Srivastava A. 2009a.“Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles.” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB) 4(1).

Parashar V, Parashar R, Sharma B, Pandey AC. 2009b.“Parthenium leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: a novel approach towards weed utilization.” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB) 4(1).

Phull AR, Abbas Q, Ali A, Raza H, Zia M, Haq IU. 2016.“Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from crude extract of Bergenia ciliata.” Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(1), 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fjps.2016.03.001

PS P, KS T. 2017.“Antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using terpenes rich extract of Lantana camara L. leaves.” Biochemistry and biophysics reports 10, 76-81.

Rai M, Ingle A, Gaikwad S, Gupta I, Yadav A, Gade A, Duran N. 2016.“Fungi: myconanofactory, mycoremediation and medicine.” Fungi: Applications and Management Strategies 201-219.

Rajabi S, Ramazani A, Hamidi M, Naji T. 2015.“Artemia salina as a model organism in toxicity assessment of nanoparticles.” DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 23(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40199-015-0105-x

Rajakumar G, Gomathi T, Thiruvengadam M, Rajeswari VD, Kalpana V, Chung IM. 2017.“Evaluation of anti-cholinesterase, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using from Millettia pinnata flower extract.” Microbial pathogenesis 103, 123-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.12.019

Ramazani A, Sardari S, Zakeri S, Vaziri B. 2010.“In vitro antiplasmodial and phytochemical study of five Artemisia species from Iran and in vivo activity of two species.” Parasitology research 107(3), 593-599. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1900-4

Roy R, Roy RA, Roy DM. 1986.“Alternative perspectives on “quasi-crystallinity”: non-uniformity and nanocomposites.” Materials Letters 4(8-9), 323-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-577X(86)90063-7

Saad AM, Abdel-Aleem AAH, Ghareeb MA, Hamed MM, Abdel-Aziz MS, Hadad AH. 2017.“In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and green biosynthesis of silver & gold nanoparticles using Callistemon citrinus leaf extract.” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 7(6), 141-149. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2017.70620

Saifuddin N, Wong C, Yasumira A. 2009.“Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of bacteria with microwave irradiation.” Journal of Chemistry 6(1), 61-70.

Sajadi SM, Nasrollahzadeh M, Maham M. 2016.“Aqueous extract from seeds of Silybum marianum L. as a green material for preparation of the Cu/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles: A magnetically recoverable and reusable catalyst for the reduction of nitroarenes.” Journal of colloid and interface science 469, 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.02.009

Salata OV. 2004.“Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine.” Journal of nanobiotechnology 2(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-3155-2-3

Sarah QS, Anny FC, Misbahuddin M. 2017.“Brine shrimp lethality assay.” Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology.

Sauer UG, Vogel S, Hess A, Kolle SN, Ma-Hock L, van Ravenzwaay B, Landsiedel R. 2013.“In vivo–in vitro comparison of acute respiratory tract toxicity using human 3D airway epithelial models and human A549 and murine 3T3 monolayer cell systems.” Toxicology in Vitro 27(1), 174-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2012.10.007

Shah P, Bhalodia D, Shelat P. 2010.“Nanoemulsion: a pharmaceutical review.” Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 1(1).

Shakir M, Khan MS, Alam MF, Younus H, Alam M, Lee DU. 2017.“Spectral, molecular, in vivo cytotoxicity and immobilization of β-galactosidase on poly (o-toluidine)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite.” Journal of Molecular Structure 1137, 216-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.02.019

Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2004a.“Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth.” Journal of colloid and interface science 275(2), 496-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.03.003

Shankar SS, Rai A, Ankamwar B, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2004b.“Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms.” Nature materials 3(7), 482. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1152

Singh M, Manikandan S, Kumaraguru A. 2011. “Nanoparticles: a new technology with wide applications.” Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 1(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjnn.2010

Song JY, Jang HK, Kim BS. 2009.“Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf extracts.” Process Biochemistry 44(10), 1133-1138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2009.06.005

Song X, Sun S, Zhang W, Yin Z. 2004.“A method for the synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles in the organic phase.” Journal of colloid and interface science 273(2), 463-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.019

Suh WH, Suslick KS, Stucky GD, Suh Y-H. 2009.“Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.” Progress in neurobiology 87(3), 133-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.09.009

Swathy J, Mishra P, Thomas J, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. 2018.“Antimicrobial potency of high-energy emulsified black pepper oil nanoemulsion against aquaculture pathogen.” Aquaculture 491, 210-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.045

Tanori J, Pileni M. 1997.“Control of the shape of copper metallic particles by using a colloidal system as template.” Langmuir 13(4), 639-646. https://doi.org/10.1021/la9606097

Teng W. 1993.“Toxicity testing using the brine shrimp: Artemia salina.” Bioactive natural products Detection, isolation and structural determination 441-456.

Vanhaecke P, Persoone G, Claus C, Sorgeloos P. 1981.“Proposal for a short-term toxicity test with Artemia nauplii.” Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 5(3), 382-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-6513(81)90012-9

Wali Muhammad, BHA, Syed Salman Hashmi, Muhammad Haroon, Shah M. 2018. A review on photocatalytic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and other biological activities of phyto-fabricated copper nanoparticles. International Journal of Biosciences 13(1), 320-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.1.320-33

Willner I, Baron R, Willner B. 2006.“Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes.” Advanced Materials 18(9), 1109-1120. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200501865

Willner I, Basnar B, Willner B. 2007.“Nanoparticle–enzyme hybrid systems for nanobiotechnology.” The FEBS journal 274(2), 302-309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05602.x

Wu S-H, Chen DH. 2004.“Synthesis of high-concentration Cu nanoparticles in aqueous CTAB solutions.” Journal of colloid and interface science 273(1), 165-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.071

Zanette C, Pelin M, Crosera M, Adami G, Bovenzi M, Larese FF, Florio C. 2011.“Silver nanoparticles exert a long-lasting antiproliferative effect on human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line.” Toxicology in Vitro 25(5), 1053-1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2011.04.005

Zhou R, Wu X, Hao X, Zhou F, Li H, Rao W. 2008.“Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 266(4), 599-603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.11.040

Zhu S, Luo F, Chen W, Zhu B, Wang G. 2017a.“Toxicity evaluation of graphene oxide on cysts and three larval stages of Artemia salina.” Science of the Total Environment 595, 101-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.224

Zhu S, Luo F, Tu X, Chen W-C, Zhu B, Wang GX. 2017b.“Developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Artemia salina cysts and larvae: Uptake, accumulation, excretion and toxic responses.” Environmental Pollution 229, 679-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.020