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Wing shape variations in Calopteryx splendens along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometric analysis

Research Paper | March 1, 2018

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Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr, June Ian C. Dedel, Ivan Cris B. Delabahan, Maria Anita Ayaton, Manilyn A. Busia, Nova P. Billuga, Mafi Kamille A. Angco, Honelyn C. Havana

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.12( 3), 73-92, March 2018


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Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) quantifies the degree of variations from a perfect symmetry and therefore expected to reflect the state of genomic and ecological stress undergone by the single species and or populations throughout its development. It identifies the extent of differences from the symmetry of left and right sides of the organisms, as both sides are expected to be identical from its genetic activity and within the environment they inhabit. In this study, geometric morphometric was utilized to measure wing shape variation in the populations of Calopteryx splendens. A total of 120 samples consisting of 30 males and 30 females were randomly collected each of the latitudinal gradient and subjected to Procrustes ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by means of Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) software. In the three factors analyzed: individuals, sides, and individual × sides result shows that the collected samples from the high altitude displayed high significant difference (P<0.0001) in the female forewings and hindwings while male forewings and hindwings showed partly non-significant. Whereas, the collected samples from the lower altitude result shows high significant difference (P<0.0001) in the female and male forewings while female and male hindwings shown partly non-significant. It implies that latitudinal gradients could influence wing shape pattern and phenotypic variability was evident between species of the same lineage. Further, utilizing geometric morphometrics is essential in identifying wing shape variations and co-variations among species relatively of the same ancestry.


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Wing shape variations in Calopteryx splendens along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometric analysis

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