Woody species diversity and stand structure along protection gradient in Hyrcanian lowland forests, North of Iran

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2013
Views (241) Download (4)

Woody species diversity and stand structure along protection gradient in Hyrcanian lowland forests, North of Iran

Farzam Tavankar
J. Bio. Env. Sci.3( 8), 29-35, August 2013.
Certificate: JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]


In this research woody species diversity and stand structure were studied in three different protection levels in Hyrcanian lowland forests: restored forest, where the protection level is very high, managed forest, which allows selective harvest of trees, and open access forest, where human population have unrestricted access to forest resources. The results showed that the number of woody species was highest in the restored forest (21 species) and was the lowest in the open access forest (13 species). The Box trees (Buxus hyrcana) that are rare in the Hyrcanian lowland forests had a highest species importance value (SIV) in the restored forest, that were not observed in the managed and open access forests. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index for woody species was the highest in the managed forest (1.05) and was the lowest in the open access forest (0.81). The tree and seedling density was the highest in the restored forest (191 and 447 stem/ha) and was the lowest in the open access forest (121 and 86 stem/ha). The managed forest had the highest basal area value (17.9 m2/ha) while the open access forest had the lowest (12.5 m2/ha)


Akhani H, Djamali M, Ghorbanalizadeh A, Ramezani E. 2010. Plant biodiversity of Hyrcanian relict forest, N Iran: An overview of the flora, vegetation, palaeoecology and conservation. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 231-258.

Banda T, Schwartz MW, Caro T. 2006. Woody vegetation structure and composition along a protection gradient in a Miombo ecosystem of western Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management 230, 179-185.

Balvanera P, Aguirre E. 2006. Tree diversity, environmental heterogeneity, and productivity in a Mexican Tropical Dry Forest. Biotropica 38(4), 479-491.

Carey AB, Curtis RO. 1996. Conservation of biodiversity: a useful paradigm for forest ecosystem management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24(4), 610-620.

Cochrane MA, Schultze MD. 1999. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure, biomass, and species composition. Biotropica 31(1), 2–16.

Ferris R, Humphrey JW. 1999. A review of potential biodiversity indicators for application in British forests. Forestry 72(4), 313-328.

Fredericksen TS, Mostacedo B. 2000. Regeneration of timber species following selection logging in a Bolivian tropical dry forest. Forest Ecology and Management 131, 47–55.

Ghazoul J, Hellier A. 2000. Setting critical limits to ecological indicators of sustainable tropical forestry. International Forestry Review 2, 243-253.

Hunter ML. 1999. Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 698.

Kohm K, Franklin JF. 1997. Forestry in 21st century, Island press, Covelo California. p. 475.

Krebs CJ. 1999. Ecological methodology. Harper and Row, New York. p. 547.

Lindenmayer DB, Margules CR, Botkin DB. 2000. Indicator of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Conservation Biology 14(4), 941-950.

Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF, Fischer J. 2006. General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 131(3), 433–445.

Marvi Mohadjer M.2005. Silviculture. Tehran University Press, Tehran. p. 387.

Mossadegh A. 1996. Silviculture. Tehran University Press, Tehran. p. 481.

Myers JA, Harms KE. 2009. Seed arrival, ecological filters, and plant species richness: a meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 12(11), 1250–1260.

Nagaike TA, Hayashi A, Kubo M, Abe MN, Arai N. 2006. Plant species diversity in a managed forest landscape composed of Larix kaempferi plantations and abandoned coppice forests in Central Japan. Forest Science 52(3), 324–332.

Naqinezhad A, Bahari SH, Gholizadeh H, Esmaeili R, Hamzehee B, Djamali M, Moradi H. 2012. A phytosociological survey of two lowland Caspian (Hyrcanian) remnant forests, Northern Iran, for validation of some forest syntax. Phytologia Balcanica 18(2), 173-186.

Nobakht M, Pourbabaei H, Beygom faghir M, Abedi R. 2011. Variations of diversity indices and Species Importance Value (SIV) of Plant species in the Dr. Dorostkar’s Forest Reservoir Area, Gisum, Talesh. Journal of Natural Environment 63(4), 389-398.

Noss RF. 1999. Assessing and monitoring forest biodiversity: a suggested framework and indicators. Forest Ecology and Management 115, 135-146.

Nykvist N. 1996. Regrowth of secondary vegetation after the ‘Borneo fire’ of 1982–1983. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12, 307–312.

Poorzady M, Bakhtiari F. 2009. Biogeosciences and Forestry. iForest 2, 198-206.

Pinard M, Howlett B, Davidson D. 1996. Site conditions limit pioneer tree recruitment after logging of dipterocarp forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica 28(1), 2–12.

Pinard MA, Barker MG. Tay J. 2000. Soil disturbance and post-logging forest recovery on bulldozer paths in Sabah, Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management 130, 213–225.

Pourbabaei H, Asgari F, Reif A, Abedi R. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13(2), 72-78.

Putz FE. 2000. Some roles of North American ecologists in land-use planning in the tropics. Ecological Applications 10, 676-679.

Sharma CM, Suyal S, Gairola S, Ghildiyal SK. 2009. Species richness and diversity along and altitudinal gradient in moist temperate forest of Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of American Science 5(5), 119-128.

Siadati   S,   Moradi   H,   Attar   F,   Etemad   V, Hamzeh’ee B, Naqinezhad A. 2010. Botanical diversity of Hyrcanian forests; a case study of a transect in the Kheyrud protected lowland mountain forests in northern Iran. Phytotaxa 7, 1-18.

Tvankar F, Mahmoudi J, Iranparast Bodaghi A. 2011. The effect of single selection method on tree species diversity in the Northern forests of Iran (Case study: Asalem-Nav, Guilan province). Journal of Science and Technology of Natural Resources 6(1), 27-40.

Van Diggelen R, Marrs RH. 2003. Restoring plant communities: introduction. Applied Vegetation Sciences 6(2), 106–110.

Woods P. 1989. Effects of logging, drought and fire on structure and composition of tropical forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica 21(4), 290-298.