Woody Species Diversity and Traditional Management Practices in Parkland Agroforestry in Gombora District, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Paper Details

Research Paper 28/07/2022
Views (574) Download (167)

Woody Species Diversity and Traditional Management Practices in Parkland Agroforestry in Gombora District, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Melese Gogo Massamo
Int. J. Biosci.21( 1), 19-43, July 2022.
Certificate: IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


This study was carried out in the southern Ethiopia to identify traditional management practices and woody species diversity in parkland Agroforestry. Reconnaissance and diagnostic surveys were conducted in the two agro-ecological zones. Then, 85 sample households were randomly selected from each wealth category based on the proportions. Systematic sampling method was used to collect woody species data from 240 quadrates. Questionnaire was used to gather information. Woody species data was analyzed for diversity, similarity index, basal areas, and importance value index. Based on the analysis of the woody species data, a total of 27 woody species belonging to 19 families were recorded. Of these, 27 woody species were recorded in lower altitude sites and 23 woody species in upper altitude sites. The important value of individual trees species at the farm level was assessed and Croton macrostachyus was ranked first at lower and upper altitude sites with mean importance value index of 120 and 118%, respectively. The richness of woody species per quadrate in lower altitude sites (3.508±0.23) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than in upper altitude sites (2.708±0.21). At the study sites, farmers retain woody species in their parklands for the purpose of improving soil fertility, fodder, fuel wood, timber shade, construction, etc. The survey result revealed that the woody species Shannon, Simpson and Evenness diversity indices were higher at lower altitude sites than upper altitude sites. Therefore, we recommend that woody species diversity and traditional management practices are mainstreamed into development plans, especially in parkland Agroforestry.


Abebaw Z. 2006. Farmers’ indigenous knowledge in managing agroforestry practices in Lay-Gayint district, south Gonder Zone, Ethiopia. Unpublished master’s thesis: Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural resource.

Abebe T, 2005. Diversity in home garden agroforestry systems of Southern Ethiopia. Wageningen University and Research.

Abed T, Stephens NC. 2003. Tree measurement manual for farm foresters. Edited M. Parsons. National Forest Inventory, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Asfaw Z. 2004. Tree species diversity, topsoil conditions and arbuscular mycorrhizal association in the Sidama traditional agroforestry land use, Southern Ethiopia.

Bartelmus P. 2013. The future we want: Green growth or sustainable development? Environmental Development 7, p 165-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2013.04.001

Bekele DM. 2018. Parkland agroforestry woody species diversity, structure, biomass carbon and management practices in gindeberet district, west shoa zone, oromia regional state, Ethiopia.

Benjamin EO, Sauer J. 2018. The cost effectiveness of payments for ecosystem services—Smallholders and agroforestry in Africa. Land use policy 71, p 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.12.001

Biruk AH. 2006. Woody species composition and socio-economic roles of traditional agroforestry practices across different agro-ecological zones in South Eastern Langano, Oromiya (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. Thesis, Hawassa University, Wondo Genet, Ethiopia).

Brown SE, Miller DC, Ordonez PJ, Baylis K. 2018. Evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in high-income countries: a systematic map protocol. Environmental evidence 7(1), p 1-16.

Chakravarty S, Bhutia KD, Suresh CP, Shukla G, Pala NA. 2016. A review on diversity, conservation and nutrition of wild edible fruits. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8(4), p 2346-2353.

Crowley EL. 1997. Rapid data collection using wealth ranking and other techniques. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya, p 16.

Das T, Das AK. 2005. Inventorying plant biodiversity in home gardens: A case study in Barak Valley, Assam, North East India. Current science, p 155-163.

Kelbessa E, Demissew S. 2014. Diversity of vascular plant taxa of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(Supp.), p 37-45.

Fleming A, O’grady AP, Mendham D, England, J, Mitchell P, Moroni M, Lyons A. 2019. Understanding the values behind farmer perceptions of trees on farms to increase adoption of agroforestry in Australia. Agronomy for sustainable development, 39(1), p 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-019-0555-5

Gebrehiwot K. 2004. Dry Land Agro forestry Strategy for Ethiopia, Mekele University Paper Presented at the Dry Lands Agro forestry Work Shop 1st-3rd. ICRAF Head Quarters, Nairobi.

Glover EK, Ahmed HB, Glover MK. 2013. Analysis of socio-economic conditions influencing adoption of agroforestry practices. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 3(4), p 178-184.

Kebede TM. 2010. Home gardens Agro-biodiversity Conservation in Sebeta-Hawas Wereda, Southwestern Shewa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia).

Kuyah S, Öborn I, Jonsson M. 2017. Regulating ecosystem services delivered in agroforestry systems. Agroforestry p 797-815. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7650-3_33

Lemenih M, Gidyelew T, Teketay D. 2004. Effects of canopy cover and understory environment of tree plantations on richness, density and size of colonizing woody species in southern Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 194(1-3), p 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.01.050

Mack RN. 1981. Invasion of Bromus tectorum L. into western North America: an ecological chronicle. Agro-ecosystems 7(2), p 145-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3746(81)90027-5

Maihe L, Kräuchi N. 2003. A method for estimating vegetation change over time and space. Journal of Geographical Sciences 13(4), p447-454.

McAdam J. 2018. Adoption of agroforestry options in land use policy measures in northern and southern Ireland. In European Agroforestry Conference-Agroforestry as Sustainable Land Use, 4th. EURAF.

Miller DC, Ordonez PJ, Baylis K, Hughes K. Rana P. 2017. Protocol for an evidence and gap map the impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well‐being in low‐and middle‐income countries: an evidence and gap map. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 13(1), p1-27. https://doi.org/10.1002/CL2.173

Montagnini F, Metzel R. 2017. The contribution of agroforestry to sustainable development goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. In Integrating landscapes: Agroforestry for biodiversity conservation and food sovereignty (p 11-45). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69371-2_2

Munsell JF, Addlestone BJ, Bukowski CJ, Nkembi L, Kingsly N, Moore EA. 2018. Relationships between agroforestry and community development according to practitioners. Agroforestry systems, 92(5), p1387-1396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0084-7

Mwase W, Sefasi A, Njoloma J, Nyoka BI, Manduwa D, Nyaika J. 2015. Factors affecting adoption of agroforestry and evergreen agriculture in Southern Africa. Environment and Natural Resources Research 5(2), p.148. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/enrr.v5n2p148

Neupane R, Thapa G. 2001. RETRACTION: Impact of agroforestry intervention on farm income under the subsistence farming system of the middle hills, Nepal. Agroforestry systems.

Nikiema A. 2005. Agroforestry parkland species diversity: uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso). Wageningen University and Research.

Omiti JM, Parton KA, Sinden JA, Ehui SK. 1999. Monitoring changes in land-use practices following agrarian de-collectivisation in Ethiopia. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 72(2), p 111-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(98)00162-5

Owombo PT, Idumah FO, Adepoju AO. 2018. Analysis of farmers’ perception and adoption of agroforestry technology as climate change mitigation strategy in Edo State, Nigeria. World News of Natural Sciences, 21.

Place F, Ajayi OC, Torquebiau E, Detlefsen Rivera G, Gauthier M, Buttoud G. 2013. Improved Policies for Faciliting the Adoption of Agroforestry. Programa Agroambiental Mesoamericano (MAP).

Sangeetha R, Shanmugam TR, Nandhini SU, 2016. Factors Affecting Adoption Rate of Agro Forestry Technologies in Tamil Nadu. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 29(347-2016-17254), p 307-312.

Saqib M, Akhtar J, Abbas G, Murtaza G. 2019. Enhancing food security and climate change resilience in degraded land areas by resilient crops and agroforestry. In Climate change-resilient agriculture and agroforestry (p 283-297). Springer, Cham.

Senbeta F, Teketay D, Näslund BÅ. 2002. Native woody species regeneration in exotic tree plantations at Munessa-Shashemene Forest, southern Ethiopia. New forests 24(2), p 131-145.

Sharma G, Sharma E. 2017. Agroforestry systems as adaptation measures for sustainable livelihoods and socio-economic development in the Sikkim Himalaya. In Agroforestry (p 217-243). Springer,Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7650-3_8

Soemarwoto, O. and Conway, G.R., 1992. The Javanese home garden. Journal for Farming Systems Research-Extension, 2(3), p 95-118.

Taylor D. 1993. Vegetation description and analysis: a practical approach.

Teklay T. 1997. Problems and prospects of tree growing by smallholder farmers: a case-study in Feleghe-Hiwot locality, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Ethiopian MSc in Forestry Programme Thesis Works (Sweden).

Tolera M. 2006. Woody species diversity of agricultural landscapes in Arsi Negelle District, Ethiopia: Implications for biodiversity conservation (Doctoral dissertation, MSc Thesis, University of Hawassa, Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Wondo Genet, Ethiopia).

Gole TW. 2003. Vegetation of the Yayu forest in SW Ethiopia: impacts of human use and implicatiions for in situ conservation of wild Coffea arabica L. Populations (10), Cuvillier Verlag. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2019.94015