Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Yield advantage of maize and artemisia intercrops in a sub-humid ecozone of Western Kenya

Research Paper | December 1, 2012

| Download 9

Chumba RKB, Owuor B, Mwai GN, Odhiambo GD, Netondo GW

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 12), 41-55, December 2012


JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


A study of intercropping systems in the upper midland agroecological zone (AEZ) of western Kenya sought to evaluate yield patterns of different maize+artemisia spacing regimes as potential practices for enhancing biodiversity, through identification of the most beneficial system component. The experiment was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in two consecutive seasons. 8 treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) design with 3 replications. The productivity of these systems was evaluated using Replacement Value of Intercropping (RVI), Cost-Benefit analysis (CBA) and Dominance Analysis (DA). The treatments had a significant effect on RVI (P<0.05). Spacing had a significant effect on artemisinin yield (P<0.05) in the short rains (SR), and exhibited a high mean of 0.8% in the long rains (LR). The treatments had no significant effect on chlorophyll content of both maize and artemisia (P>0.05), but there was a positive correlation between artemisinin and the chlorophyll content of artemisia (r2=0.7) in SR. CBA showed artemisia monocrops to be economically more advantageous than other treatments. Maize+artemisia intercrops exhibited a 60% to 70% more biological and economical yield advantage than maize monocrops under the same management system, using RVI. The identified biological yield advantages did not however translate into substantial economic efficiency and a combined CBA and DA proved only the maize sole crops to be uneconomical, whereby overall system productivity favoured T6 maize+artemisia intercrops (Ksh 76,900ha-1 or USD 905 ha-1) at current exchange rates. It is concluded that farmers will have a high yield advantage when they intercrop maize with artemisia to yield optimally on artemisinin and ensure food security, using a spacing of T6 artemisia 0.9m X 0.9m and Maize 0.9m X 0.75m in sub-humid areas of western Kenya or regions with similar AEZ.


Copyright © 2012
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Yield advantage of maize and artemisia intercrops in a sub-humid ecozone of Western Kenya

Alabi RA, Esobhawan AO. 2006. Relative Economic Value of Maize + Okra Intercrops in Rainforest Zone, Nigeria. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 7 (3): 433- 438.

Banik P, Midya A, Sarkar BK, Ghose SS. 2006. Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: advantages and weed smothering. European Journal of Agronomy 24, 325-332.

Banyai W, Masahiro M, Supaibulwatana K. 2010. Enhancement of artemisinin content and biomass in Artemisia annua by exogenous GA3 treatment. Plant Growth Regulation 63, 45–54.

Boughton D, Crawford E, Krause M, de Frahan BH. 1990. Economic Analysis of On-Farm Trials: A Review of Approaches and Implications for Research Program Design. Staff Paper No. 90-78:-Senegal Agricultural Research II Project, Funded by the USAID, Dakar, Senegal.

CBD. 2008. Report on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 413 St.Jacques Street West, Montreal, Canada.

Chabi-Olaye A, Nolte C, Schulthess F, Borgemeister C. 2005. Relationships of Intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid Forest of Cameroon. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95, 417-427.

Christen P, Veuthey JL. 2001. New Trends in Extraction, Identification and Quantification of Artemisinin and its Derivatives. Current Medicinal Chemistry 8, 827-839.

Chuan-chao D, Xie H, Wang X, Li P, Zhang T, Li Y, Xiao Tan. 2009. Intercropping Peanut with Traditional Chinese medicinal Plants to Improve Soil Microcosm Environment and Peanut Production in subtropical China. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(16), 3739-3746.

Chumba RB. 2012. Effect of Spacing on Yield of Maize (Zea Mays L.) and Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) Intercrops in a Sub-humid Tropical Ecozone of Maseno, Kenya. Msc Thesis of Maseno University, Kenya, p. 47-56.

Delabays N, Benakis A, Collet G. 1993. “Selection and Breeding for High Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) Yielding Strains of Artemisia Annua,” Acta Horticulturae (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) 330, 203-207

EABL. 2005. East African Botanicals Ltd. A Growers’ Production Manual for Artemisia annua. p. 30.

Ellman A. 2006. Cultivation of Artemisia annua – Links to the Market –ICRAF/CDE. In]: Proceedings of Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20th – 22nd March.

FAO. 1978. Report on the AEZ Project. Methodology and Results for Africa. (World Soil Resources Project Report 158p),Rome. In] Jaetzold R., H. Schmidt, B.Hornetz, C. Shisanya.2005. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya [MoA/GTZ] – Vol. II: West Kenya.

FAO. 2005. Realizing the economic benefits of Agroforestry: Experiences, Lessons and Challenges. In] TerrAfrica (Edts). 2009. A. Woodfine: A Resource Guide to Sustainable Land Management.

Ferreira JFS, Laughlin JC, Delabays N, Magalhaes PM. 2005. Cultivation and Genetics of Artemisia annua L. for increased production of the antimalarial artemisinin. Plant Genetic Resources 3(2), 206-229.

Fukai S, Trenbath BR. 1993. Processes determining intercrop productivity and yields of component crops. Field Crops Research 34, 247-271.

Gallagher RS, Fernandes ECM, Mc-Callie EL. 1999. Weed management through short- term improved fallows in tropical agro ecosystems. Agroforestry Systems 47, 197–221.

Ghulam H, Suhail-Mumtaz S, Khan A, Khan S. 2003. Maize and Soyabean Intercropping under Various Levels of Soybean Seed Rates. Asian Journal of Plant Science 2(3), 339-341

Griffee P, Diemer P. 2006. (FAO). Artemisia annua: the plant, Production, Processing and Medicinal Applications.

Heemskerk W, Henk S, de Steenhuijsen BP. 2006: THE WORLD OF ARTEMISIA IN 44 QUESTIONS. Copyright ©The Royal Tropical Institute / Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen. PDF edition.

Jaetzold R, Schmidt H, Hornetz B, Shisanya C. 2005.  Farm Management Handbook of Kenya [MoA/GTZ] – VOL. IIA, 2nd Edition (Natural conditions and farm management information: West Kenya).

Jaetzold R, Schmidt H. 1983. Farm management handbook of Kenya. Vol. IIIB. (Costs and Prices, Gross Margins, Cash Flows and Farm Models). MoA, Kenya.

Khan ZR, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Hassanali A, Midega CAO. 2006. Combined control of Striga and stemborers in maize-Desmodium intercrops. Crop Protection 25, 989– 995.

Kindermans JM, Pilloy J, Olliaro P, Gomes M. 2007. Ensuring Sustained ACT production and reliable artemisinin supply. In]: WHO.2008.Report of a Joint Informal Consultation, Division of Tropical Diseases, Malaria Unit. WHO, Geneva, p. 24.

Kumar V, Ogunlela VB, Yadav RC. 1987. Production of Maize and Associated Intercrops in Relation to bed Configuration and Planting. Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research 5(1), 97-108.

Lundgren BO, Raintree JB. 1982. Sustainable agroforestry. In]: “Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia” (B. Nestel Edts.). International Service for National Agricultural Research, The Hague, p. 37-49.

Makeham JP, Malcolm LR. 1986. The Economics of  Tropical  Farm  Management.182pp.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mitchell CA, T. Leakakos T, Ford TL. 1991. Modification of yield and chlorophyll content in leaf lettuce by HPS radiation and nitrogen treatments. HORTSCIENCE 26(11), 1371-1374.

Moseley WG. 1994. An Equation for the Replacement value of Agroforestry. Agroforestry systems 26(1), 47-52.

Muoneke CO, Ndukwe OO. 2008. Effect of Plant Population and Spatial Arrangement on the Productivity of Okra/Amaranthus Intercropping System. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension 7(1), 15-21.

Odhiambo GD, Ariga ES. 2001. Effect of Intercropping Maize and Beans on Striga Incidence and Grain Yield. In]: Proceedings of the 7th Eastern and Southern Africa Maize Conference, Feb.2001.

Okalebo JR, Palm CA, Gichuru M, Owuor JO, Othieno CO, Munyampundu A, Muasya RM, Woomer PL. 1999. Use of wheat straw, soybean trash and nitrogen fertiliser for maize production in the Kenyan highlands. African Crop Science Journal, 7(4), 423-431.

Otsyula RM, Nderitu JH. 1998. Effects of soil improving herbaceous legumes for Control of bean root rot and bean stem maggot in western Kenya. Annual report 1998, KARI. Regional Research Centre Kakamega, Kenya.

Peng S, Garcia F, Laza R, Cassman KG. 1992. Leaf Thickness affects the estimation of leaf N using a chlorophyll meter. IRRI Newsletter 17(6), 19-20.

Perrin R, Anderson J, Winkelmann D, Moscardi E. 1988. From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economic Training Manual.iii+59pp. CIMMYT: Mexico, D.F.

Sanchez PA. 1999. Improved fallows come of age in the tropics. Agroforestry Systems 47, 3–12.

Serigne TK, Verchot LV, Mackensen J, Boye A, Van Noordwijk M, Tomich TP, Ong C, Albrecht A, Palm C. 2006. World Agroforestry into the future: Opportunities for Linking Climate change Adaptation and Mitigation through AF systems. © 2006 World Agroforesty Centre, Nairobi.

Smale   M,   Jayne TS.    2003.   “Maize in Eastern and Southern Africa: “Seeds” of Success in Retrospect”. Discussion Paper 97, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C, 2003.

Sunwar S. 2003. Home gardens in western Nepal: Opportunities and Challenges for on farm Management of Agro-biodiversity. Msc thesis 29: Swedish Biodiversity Centre,Uppsala – Sweden.

Van der Meer J. 1989. The Ecology of Intercropping. © Cambridge University Press, NY-10022.p. 237.

Wannawong S, Belt GH, McKetta CW. 1991. Benefit-cost analysis of selected Agroforestry systems in Northeastern Thailand. Agroforestry Systems 16, 83-94.

WHO. 2008. Use of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives as Anti-Malarial Drugs. Report of a Joint CTD/DMP/TDR Consultation, WHO, Division of Tropical Diseases, Malaria Unit, Geneva, p. 24.

Willey RW. 1985. Evaluation and presentation of intercropping advantages. Experimental Agriculture 21, 119-133.