Yield improvement of direct sown rice on raised beds using different priming techniques in salt affected soils

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2019
Views (267) Download (14)

Yield improvement of direct sown rice on raised beds using different priming techniques in salt affected soils

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Khalil Ahmed, Muhammad Sarfraz, Ghulam Qadir, Zaheen Manzoor, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz, Muhammad Nadeem, Imtiaz Ali Warriach, Muhammad Sultan Ali bazmi
Int. J. Biosci.15( 1), 155-161, July 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The principal method for rice establishment is transplanting, however, water scarcity and labor shortage limited the transplanting method and required an alternative approach. One of the most pragmatic and economical approach is the direct seeding of rice in an aerobic condition, but problems associated with direct seeding rice are weed infestation, uneven crop stand and poor germination and these problems are further exacerbated in saline conditions. To overcome these problems, seed priming is an effective and economical technology for uniform emergence and establishment of seedlings, improved robustness and enhanced yields. So, a three years experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2018 to investigate the yield enhancement of direct sown rice with different seed priming agents using raised bed sowing method in salt affected soil. Treatments included in the study were: T1, KH2PO4 (2 %), T2, ZnSO4 (2 %), T3, SSP (1 %), T4, MgSO4 (2 %), T5, SSP + Urea (1% each). Experimental designed was RCBD with three replications. Seeds of rice cultivar (KSK-133) were soaked for 12 hours in respective osmopriming agents according to treatments plan. Three seeds per hill were sown by dibbling maintaining P x P and R x R distance of 30 cm. Yield and yield determining attributes of rice crop were recorded at harvesting. Results of our study showed that yield and yield determining attributes of direct sown rice were significantly influenced by all the seed priming agents, particularly seed priming with SSP solutions proved more superior as compared to other treatments and produced maximum paddy yield of direct sown rice. Therefore, it is suggested that seed priming with SSP solution can be an effective strategy to increase the yield of direct sown rice in salt affected soil which is easily and readily available source of phosphorus to poor farmers.


Ali S, Khan AR, Mairaj G, Arif M, Fida M, Bibi S. 2008. Assessment of different crop nutrient management practices for yield improvement. Australian Journal of Crop Science 2(3), 150-157.

Amirnia R, Ghiyasi M. 2016. Reducing drought stress effects in germination and establishment stage of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) by seed priming. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 10, 24-26.

Anosheh HP, Hossein S, Yahya E. 2011. Chemical priming with urea and KNO3 enhances maize hybrids (zea mays l.) seed viability under abiotic stress. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology 14(4), 289-295.

Arif M, Ali S, Shah A, Javed N, Rashid A. 2005. Seed priming maize for improving emergence and seedling growth. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 21 (4), 539-543.

Ashraf M, McNeilly T, Bradshaw AD. 1986. The response of selected salt-tolerant and normal lines of four grass species to NaCl in sand culture. New Phytologist 104, 453-461.

Du LV, Tuong TP. 2002. Enhancing the performance of dry-seeded rice: effects of seed priming, seedling rate, and time of seedling. In Pandey, S., Mortimer, M., Wade, L., Tuong, T.P., Lopes, K. and Hardy B. eds., Direct seeding: Research strategies and opportunities. International Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 241-256.

Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A. 2006. Priming of field-sown rice seed enhancesgermination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield. Plant Growth Regulation 49, 285-294.

Farooq M, Shahzad MAB, Abdul W, Nazir A. 2010. Changes in nutrient-homeostasis and reserves metabolism during rice seed priming: consequences for seedling emergence and growth. Agricultural Sciences in China 9(2), 191-198.

Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rehman H, Saleem BA. 2008. Seed priming enhancesthe performance of late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by improvingchilling tolerance. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 194, 55-60.

Haghpanah AO, Younesi, Moradi A. 2009. The Effect of Priming on Seedling Emergence of Differentially Matured Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Seeds. Journal of Applied Science and Research 5(7), 729-732.

Haloi B, Saud RK, Dey PC. 2006. Seed priming and potassium nutrition as the management tools for drought mitigation in upland summer rice. In: Trivedi P C. Advances in Plant Physiology I.K. International: 250-257.

Harris D. 2006. Development and testing of on-farm seed priming. Advances in Agronomy 90, 129-178.

Heydecker W. 1973. Germination of an idea: the priming of seeds. University of Nottingham School of Agriculture Report, 1974, p50-67.

Iqbal RM, Chauhan HQI. 2003. Effect of Phosphorus levels on yield components, grain yield and cutting index of two maize varieties. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2(10), 800-803.

Jacob J, Lawlor DW. 2003. In vivo photosynthetic electron transport does not limit photosynthetic capacity in phosphate-deficient sunflower and maize leaves. Plant Cell Environment 16, 785-795.

Khalil SK, Khan S, Rahman A, Khan AZ, Khalil IH, Amanullah, Wahab S, Mohammad F, Nigar S, Zubair M, Parveen S, Khan A. 2010. Seed priming and phosphorus application enhance phenology and dry matter production of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(3), 1849-1856.

Miraj G, Shah HU, Arif M. 2013. Priming maize (zea mays) seed with phosphate solutions improves seedling growth and yield. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23(3), 893-899.

Rehman HU, Basra SMA, Basra A, Farooq M. 2011. Field appraisal of seed priming to improve the growth, yield and quality of direct seeded rice. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forest 35, 357-365.

Rehman H, Muhammad K, Shahzad MAB, Irfan A, Muhammad F. 2015. Influence of Seed Priming on Performance and Water Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice in Alternating Wetting and Drying. Rice Science 22(4), 189-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2015.03.001

Ruan SL, Xue Q Z, Wang QH. 2003. Physiological effects of seed priming on salt-tolerance of seedlings in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Scientia Agricola 36, 463-468. (in Chinese with English abstract).

 Ruttanaruangboworn A, Wanchai C, Pitipong T, Damrongvudhi O. 2017. Effect of seed priming with different concentrations of potassium nitrate on the pattern of seed imbibition and germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Integrative Agriculture 16(3), 605-613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61441-7.

Savvides A, Ali S, Tester M, Fotopoulos V. 2016. Chemical priming of plants against multiple abiotic stresses: mission possible? Trends in Plant Science 21, 329-340.

Seck PA, Diagne A, Mohanty S, Wopereis MC. 2012. Crops that feed the world 7. Rice. Food Security 4, 7-24.

Shah SQ, Neelam A, Muhammad NK, Dawood, Taskeen HK, Babar S, Irfanullah I, Muhammad B. 2019. Effect of priming on okra cultivars with different single super phosphate (SSP) concentrations. Pure and Applied Biology 8(1), 420-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2018.700201

Shehab GG, Ahmed OK, El-Beltagi HS. 2010. Effects of various chemical agents for alleviation of drought stress in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 38(1), 139-148.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistic: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd edition. McGraw Hill book Co. Inc. New York, USA. 400-428 p.

Teshome W, Tamado T, Nigussie D, Singh TN. 2018. Effect of Seed Priming on Germination and Seedling Growth of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Varieties. East African Journal of Sciences 12(1), 51-60.

Usuda H, Shimogawara K. 1992. Phosphate deficiency in maize. III. Changes in enzyme activities during phosphate deprivation. Plant Physiology 99, 1680-1685.

Varier A, Vari AK, Dadlani M. 2010. The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science 99(4), 6-19.

Yan M. 2015. Seed priming stimulate germination and early seedling growth of Chinese cabbage under drought stress. South African Journal of Botany 99, 88-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2015.03.195