Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | July 1, 2014

| Download 2

Zoopharmacognosy and epigenetic behavior of mountain wildlife towards Berberis species

Tika Khan, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Shaukat Ali, Haibat Ali

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(1), 37-44, July 2014


JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Berberis, a member of family Berberidaceae serves as ‘Herbal-wildlife-clinic’ in nature. Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica is endemic to the area and has become critically endangered. For the first time research documented unique epigenetic behaviour of different mountain wildlife and zoopharmacological practices of traditional communities from CKNP. When wildlife gets physical hurts, it rushes towards Berberis plants and eat berries, chew leaves or bark, which is found significant (p<0.001). Such behaviour is untaught, not learned, and automatic but seems pre-programmed instinctively triggered reflexed. This is observed in avifauna (House Sparrow, Chakor, Ram Chakor) and angulates (Flare horned Markhor, Himalayan Ibex) only. 79.03%, 36.51% hunters (SD±30.02), 83.24%, 58.23% shepherds (SD±17.68) and 41.92%, 17.11% local population (SD±17.54) believe and have personal observations respectively for Berberis-wildpharma interaction. Traditionally it is used zoopharmacologically for bone healing of limbs (93.67%), other bone fracture and injury (90.91%), other internal injuries (85.53%), external injuries (73.33%), delivery of sheep (38.12%), goat (17.36%) and cow (19.87%). No such observation was recorded with respect to herpetofauna and carnivores.


Copyright © 2014
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Zoopharmacognosy and epigenetic behavior of mountain wildlife towards Berberis species

Aguilera F, Mendez J, Pasaro E, Laffon B. 2010. Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health. Journal Applied Toxicology 30(4), 291–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1521.

Alam J, Ali SI. 2010. Contribution to the red list of the Plants of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(5), 2967-2971.

Ali SI, Qaiser M. 1986. A Phytogeographic Analysis of the Phanerogams of Pakistan and Kashmir, Proceeding of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 89B, 89-101.

Ansari MA, Khandelwal N, Kabra M. 2013. A Review on Zoopharmacognosy. International Journal of Pharmaceutical And Chemical Sciences 2(1).

Asif A, Kabub G, Mehmood S, Khunum R. Gulfraz M. 2007. Wound healing activity of root extract of Berberis Lyceum Royle in rats. Phytother. Res. 21, 589-591.

Asseldonk TV. 2006. The science of zoopharmacognosy: what do we know about animal self-medication? Institute for Ethnobotany and Zoopharmacognosy. http://www.ethnobotany.nl/VAN%20ASSELDONK%20Lecture%200406%20Zoopharmacognosy.pdf

Balick MJ, Cox PA. 1996. Plants, People and Culture. New York: WH Freeman and Co.

Bird A. 2007. Introduction Perceptions of epigenetics. Nature 447, 396-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05913

Brander AAD. 1931. Wild animals in central india. London: Edward Arnold.

Brunfels. 1532. As cited in Asseldonk T.v. 2006. The science of zoopharmacognosy: what do we know about animal self-medication?. Institute for Ethnobotany and Zoopharmacognosy. Retrieved from http://www.ethnobotany.nl/VAN%20ASSELDONK%20Lecture%200406%20Zoopharmacogno sy.pdf on January 2, 2014.

Burritt EA, Provenza FD. 2000. Role of toxins in intake of varied diets by sheep. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26, 1991–2005.

Chakraborty S, Tiwari R, Dhama K. 2013. Miracle of herbs in antibiotic resistant wounds and skin infections: treasure of nature – a review/ perspective. Pharma science monitor 4(4), 214-248.

Clayton DH, Wolfe ND. 1993. The adaptive significance of self-medication. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8, 60–63.

Cousins Don, Huffman MA. 2002 medicinal properties in the diet of gorillas: an ethno-pharmacological evaluation. Kyoto University Research Information Repository. 23(2), 65-89.

Dersal WRV, Mulford FL, Thornthwaite CW. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States: their erosion-control and wildlife values. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 303, 3-4.

Engel, Reece C. 2002. Acknowledging the potential role of animal self-medication. In: Powell, Jane and et al., (Eds.) Proceedings of the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference, Organic Centre Wales, Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales Aberystwyth, 355-358 p.

Engel C. 2002. Wild health. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, USA.

Foley.  2009.  Targeted  mutagenesis  in  zebrafish using customized zinc-finger nucleases. 4(12), 1855-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2009.209.

GoP. 2014. Estimated population based on census 1998. Statistics department of Gilgit-Baltistan, Gilgit, Hyderpura Gilgit. Personal communication March 12, 2012.

Gradé JT, Tabuti JRS, Damme PV. 2009 Four Footed Pharmacists: Indications of Self-Medicating Livestock in Karamoja, Uganda Economic Botany 63(1), 29-42 p.

Grandint, Deesing MJ. 2007. Behavioral Genetics and Animal Science. Retrieved from http://digitool.library.colostate.edu/exlibris/dtl/d31/apachemedia/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS8xNTQzMg==.pdf

Haig D. 2004. The (Dual) Origin of Epigenetics. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 69, 67-70.

Ho SM, Tang WY. 2007 Techniques used in studies of epigenome dysregulation due to aberrant DNA methylation: An emphasis on fetal-based adult diseases. Reproductive Toxicol0gy 23(3), 267–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.200701.004

Houston DC, Gilardi JD, Hall AJ. 2001. Soil consumption by elephants might help to minimize the toxic effects of plant secondary compounds in forest browse. Mammal Reviews 31, 249–254.

Huffman MA, Page JE, Sukhdeo MVK, Gotoh S, Kalunde MS, Chandrasiri T. 1996a. leaf-swallowing by chimpanzees, a behavioural adaptation for the control of strongyloide nematode infections. International journal of primatology 72, 475-503.

Huffman MA. 1997. Current evidence for self-medication in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. Year book of physical anthropology 40, 171-200.

Huffman MA. 2001. Self medicative behaviour in the African great apes: an evolutionary perspective into the origins of human traditional medicine. Bioscience 51, 651-661.

Huffman MA. 2003. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 371–381.

Hussain E, Khan B, Lencioni V, Mumtaz S, Ali F. 2012. Stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Bagrot Valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. Records Zoological Survey of Pakistan 21, 60-64.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3787/0 on April 10, 2014.

Jaenisch R, Bird A. 2003. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. Nature Genetics 33, 245-254.

Janzen DH. 1978. Complications in interpreting the chemical defenses of trees against tropical arboreal plant eating vertebrates. In GG Montgomery (ed.): the ecology of arboreal folivores. Washington, DC: Smithsonian institute Press, 73-84 p.

Katiyar C, Gupta A, Kanjilal S, Katiyar S. 2012. Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach. AYU (Ayurveda) 33(1), 10–19.

Ketch LA, Malloch D, Mahaney WC, Huffman MA. 2001. Comparative microbial analysis and clay mineralogy of soils eaten by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33, 199–203.

Kim S, Choi JH, Kim JB, Nam SJ, Yang JH, Kim JH, Lee JE. 2008. Berberine suppresses TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 and cell invasion through inhibition of AP-1 activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Molecules 2008, 13, 2975-2985.

Krief S. 2012 Do animals use natural properties of plants to self-medicate? Applied equine nutrition and training, 159-170 p.

Lozano GA. 1998. Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals. In Advances in the study of behavior (ed. AP Moler, M Milinski and PJB Slater) 27, pp. 291–317. Elsevier Science, London, UK.

Lozano GA. 1998. Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals. In . Møller, A. P., Milinski, M., and Slater, P. J. B. (Eds.). Advances in the Study of Behavior Volume 27, Stress and Behavior. 291-317 p. Academic Press, (now “Elsevier Science”), London.

Mittal A, Sardana S, Pandey A. 2013. Herbal boon for wounds. A Review. International J. Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science 5(2), 1-12.

Noordhuis R. 2005. Zoöfarmacognosie: onderzoek naar zelfmedicatie bij dieren. Ned T v Fytoth 18(3), 2-6.

Phy TS, Provenza FD. 1998. Sheep fed grain prefer foods and solutions that attenuate acidosis. Journal of animal science 76(4), 954-960.

Plotkin MJ. 2000. Medicine Quest: In Search of Nature’s Healing Secrets. New.

Rakyan. 2003. Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin (Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission. PubMed 100(5), 2538-43.

Research.  2014.  Sample  size.  Creative  research systems. Retrieved from http://www.surveysystem.com/sample-sizeformula.htm on February 27, 2013.

Riesenberg SH. 1948. Magic and medicine in Ponape. Southwest journal of anthropology 4, 406-429.

Rodriguesa JC, Ascensãob L, Bonetc MA, Vallèsc J. 2003. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic plants in the Natural Park of “Serra de São Mamede” (Portugal).Journal of Ethnopharmacology 89, 199–209.

Skinner  MK.  2011. Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. EMBO Reports 12(7), 620–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2011.125

Tang WY, Ho SM. 2007. Epigenetic reprogramming and imprinting in origins of disease. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 8(2), 173-182 p.

Villalba. 2006. As cited in Williams DE. 2008. Self-medication in horses. Colorado State University. 23-28 p.

Villalba. 2010. Selection of tannins by sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. Journal of animal science 88(6), 2189-2198 http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2272

Villalba JJ, Provenza FD. 2001. Preference for polyethylene glycol by sheep fed a quebracho tannin diet. Journal of animal science 79(8), 2066–2074.

Villalba JJ, Provenza FD. 2002. Polyethylene glycol influences selection of foraging location by sheep consuming quebracho tannin. Journal of animal science 80(7), 1846-1851.

Villalba JJ, Provenza FD, Shaw R. 2006 Sheep self-medicate when challenged with illness-inducing foods. Animal Behaviour,Volume 71, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 1131–1139.

Virk AT, Sheikh KM, Marwat AH. 2003. NASSD Background Paper: Biodiversity. IUCN Pakistan, Northern Areas Progamme, Gilgit. x+74 pp. retrieved from. https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/bp_biodiversity.pdf on September 29, 2013.

Whitelaw NC, Whitelaw E. 2006. How lifetimes shape  epigenotype  within  and  across  generations. Human   Molecular   Genetics   15(2),  R131−R137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddl200.

WLP.  1999.Wildlife  Sanctuaries/Game  Reserves. Wildlife of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com/sanctuaries.html

WWF Pakistan. 2009. Land Cover Mapping of the Central Karakoram National Park, Version 2.0, WWF– Pakistan, Lahore.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background