Zooplankton Assessment and the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Bitan-ag Creek Cagayan de Oro City

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2019
Views (343) Download (21)

Zooplankton Assessment and the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Bitan-ag Creek Cagayan de Oro City

Claire Ann Malaras, Genevive Precillas, Sean Michael S. Cabañeros, RJ Krista Raye Y. Leocadio, Gina C. Lacang
J. Bio. Env. Sci.15( 5), 46-60, November 2019.
Certificate: JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


This research study aimed to analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of Bitan- ag creek and to assess zooplankton diversity. Specifically, it determined (1) the physico-chemical condition and nutrient load of the creek and compared to DENR Administrative Order (DAO) standard, (2) assessed how the physico-chemical parameters affect the distribution and abundance of zooplankton, (3) identify zooplankton species that are found in each sampling sites, (4) measure significant difference on the abundance and diversity of zooplankton between sites. The study made used of the descriptive-comparative design to determine quantitatively water quality parameters such as conductivity, water temperature, TDS, turbidity, salinity, water current, COD, DO, pH, nitrates and phosphorus. The results clearly revealed that some physico-chemical and nutrient load parameters exceeded the standard of class “C” water body, this includes: conductivity, TDS, turbidity, DO and phosphate content. A total of five (5) species of zooplankton belonging to three (3) families namely: Appendicularia, Daphniidae and Ameiridae were present. Family ameiridae had the highest total number of three individuals which are found in first and third sites, whereas, the appendicularia and daphniidae settled only in the third sampling sites. Further, the study also showed significant difference on the abundance and diversity of zooplankton between sites. Thus, the distribution and abundance of zooplankton in Bitan –ag creek were greatly influenced by the condition of its physico-chemical and nutrient chemistry. The research suggested that there should be rehabilitation of Bitan –ag creek to avoid further degradation of its water quality.


Batzer DP, Palik BJ, Buech R. 2004. Relationships between environmental characteristics and macroinvertebrate communities in seasonal woodland ponds of Minnesota. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23(1), 50-68.

Bozkurt A, Sagat Y. 2008. Vertical distribution of Birecik Dam Lake (Turkey) zooplankton. Journal of FisheriesSciences. com 2(3), 332-342.

Brena C, Cima F, Burighel P. 2003. The exceptional “blind” gut of    Appendicularia sicula (Appendicularia, Tunicata). Zoologischer Anzeiger-A Journal of Comparative Zoology 242(2), 169-177.

Canencia OP, Lituañas CRM, Ansigbat VV, Ascaño CP, Tulang RO, Yañez SS. 2011. A Comprehensive Analysis on the Dynamics of Biodiversity and Bitan-ag Creek Watershed Interactions. Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 9.

Dejen E, Vijverberg J, Nagelkerke LA, Sibbing FA. 2004. Temporal and spatial distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton in relation to turbidity and other environmental factors in a large tropical lake- (L. Tana, Ethiopia). Hydrobiologia 513(1-3), 39-49.

Del Rosario RM, Palmes ND. 2010. Bitan-ag Creek Water. Mindanao Journal of Science and Technology 8.

Dodds, W. K. (2006). Eutrophication and trophic state in rivers and streams. Limnology and Oceanography 51(1part2), 671-680.

Dolan JR. 2011. The legacy of the last cruise of the Carnegie: a lesson in the value of dusty old taxonomic monographs. Journal of plankton research 33(9), 1317-1324.

Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Parameters of Water Quality. ISBN -1-84096-015-3

Gasca R, Suárez-Morales E, Haddock SH. 2007. Symbiotic associations between crustaceans and gelatinous zooplankton in deep and surface waters off California. Marine Biology 151(1), 233-242.

Gillooly JF. 2000. Effect of body size and temperature on generation time in zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 22(2), 241-251.

Hunt GW, Stanley EH. 2003. Environmental factors influencing the composition and distribution of the hyporheic fauna in Oklahoma streams: Variation across ecoregions. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 158(1), 1-23

Hylander S, Jephson T, Lebret K, Von Einem J, Fagerberg T, Balseiro E, Ljungberg P. 2011. Climate-induced input of turbid glacial meltwater affects vertical distribution and community composition of phyto-and zooplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 33(8), 1239-1248.

Nakane Y, Suda Y, Sano M. 2011. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan. Helgoland Marine Research 65(2), 123.

Nandini S, Silva-Briano M, García GG, Sarma SSS, Adabache-Ortiz A, de la Rosa RG. 2009. First record of the temperate species Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann, 1887 emend. Johnson, 1952 (Cladocera: Daphniidae) in Mexico and its demographic characteristics in relation to algal food density. Limnology 10(2), 87-94.

Nejstgaard JC, Hygum BH, Naustvoll LJ, Båmstedt U. 2001. Zooplankton growth, diet and reproductive success compared in simultaneous diatom-and flagellate-microzooplankton-dominated plankton blooms. Marine Ecology Progress Series 221, 77-91.

Paulose PV, Maheshwari K. 2008. Seasonal variation in Zooplankton community structure of Ramgarh lake, Jaipur, Rajasthan. In Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference (Vol. 82, p. 87).

Pereira R, Soares AMVM, Ribeiro R, Gonçalves F. 2002. Assessing the trophic state of Linhos lake: a first step towards ecological rehabilitation. Journal of Environmental Management 64(3), 285-297.

physicochemical factors and Chlorophyll a on diel changes in vertical distribution of zooplankton in a eutrophic reservoir (Tahtalı Reservoir, NW Turkey). Ege J Fish Aqua Sci 31(4), 167-179.

Rose KA, Werner FE, Megrey BA, Aita MN, Yamanaka Y, Hay DE, Foster MB. 2007. Simulated herring growth responses in the Northeastern Pacific to historic temperature and zooplankton conditions generated by the 3-dimensional NEMURO nutrient-phytoplankton–zooplankton model. Ecological modelling 202(1-2), 184-195.

Saliu JK, Ekpo MP. 2006. Preliminary chemical and biological assessment of Ogbe Creek, Lagos, Nigeria. West African Journal of Applied Ecology 9(1).

Sousa W, Attayde JL, Rocha EDS, Eskinazi-Sant’Anna EM. 2008. The     response of zooplankton assemblages to variations in the water quality of four man-made lakes in semi-arid northeastern Brazil. Journal of Plankton Research 30(6), 699-708.

Tackx ML, De Pauw N, Van Mieghem R, Azémar F, Hannouti A, Van Damme S, Meire P. 2004. Zooplankton in the Schelde estuary, Belgium and The Netherlands. Spatial and temporal patterns. Journal of Plankton Research 26(2), 133-141.

Tesoriero AJ, Duff JH, Wolock DM, Spahr NE, Almendinger JE. 2009. Identifying pathways and processes affecting nitrate and orthophosphate inputs to streams in agricultural watersheds. Journal of Environmental Quality 38(5), 1892-1900.

Tiberti R. 2011. Morphology and ecology of Daphnia middendorffiana, Fisher 1851 (Crustacea, Daphniidae) from four new populations in the Alps. Journal of Limnology 70(2), 239-247.

Wetzel RG. 2001. Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. Gulf professional Publishing.

Yoshida T, Matias-Peralta H, Yusoff FM, Toda T, Othman BR. 2012. Zooplankton research in Malaysia: Current status and future prospects. Coast. Mar. Sci 35, 208-213.